By David Madsen, David Rhode
David Madsen is the previous division Chair of Drafting know-how and an teacher at Clackamas group university, a certified AutoCAD. education middle in Oregon urban, Oregon. he's additionally a former member of the Board of administrators of the yankee layout Drafting organization.
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Additional info for Across the West: Human Population Movement and the Expansion of the Numa
Richard Holmer presents another model explaining the modern distribution of the Numa in the context of archaeological data from the Snake River Plain. The final paper by Mary Lou Larsen and Marcel Kornfeld raises a thorny theoretical issue addressing "ethnic markers" in the context of data from the Rocky Mountains and northern Plains. The summary paper by David Rhode and David Madsen attempts to draw these papers together and makes the point, as have a number of others, that there are a variety of ways that populations expand geographically and that we need to be cognizant of the different kinds of archaeological, linguistic, and genetic records such movements may be expected to produce.
In part this fact may reflect the culture-historical paradigm under which many of the population movement models were developed. Under this paradigm, population movement itself was the explanation accounting for the distribution of language groups or changes in artifact classes. The next step, explaining how Numic populations moved and replaced previous inhabitants, was rarely taken. How Did the Numa Spread? Explaining how Numic populations may have been able to expand may also have been stymied by a theoretical construct that has held great importance in interpretations about the human past in the Intermountain West: adaptive convergence, or the "doctrine of limited possibilities" (Taylor 1961:71).
Curiously, Taylor's hypotheses rather closely followed Zingg's views, which he had previously criticized). Swanson (1962b) also supported an occupation of several thousand years in the northern Great Basin by the direct ancestors of the Northern Shoshone, arguing on the basis of projectile point forms and other archaeological data (cf. Holmer, this volume). " Swanson's interpretation was supported by Corliss (1972:30-34), but was refuted by Epstein (1968) and later by Butler (1983). J. Gunnerson (1962) proposed that Numic peoples had spread throughout the Great Basin within the past thousand years, but from the southeastern Great Basin, not the southwestern Basin.
Across the West: Human Population Movement and the Expansion of the Numa by David Madsen, David Rhode