By Flossie Wong-Staal, Robert C. Gallo
This reference describes the newest advances within the improvement and layout of an HIV preventive vaccine-detailing the pathogenesis and genetic variability of HIV an infection for the development of molecular and healing recommendations to lessen the development and transmission of AIDS. With contributions by way of universally famous professionals within the box, AIDS Vaccine examine discusses
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Cell type-speciﬁc fusion Immunopathogenesis of HIV Infection 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 41 cofactors determine human immunodeﬁciency virus type 1 tropism for Tcell lines versus primary macrophages. J Virol 70:5487–5494. , A. DeVico, A. Garzino-Demo, S. Arya, R. Gallo, P. Lusso. 1995. Identiﬁcation of RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β as the major HIV suppressive factors produced by CD8ϩ T cells. Science 270:1811–1815. , C. Broder, P. Kennedy, E. Berger. 1996. HIV-1 entry cofactor: functional cDNA cloning of a seven-transmembrane domain, G-protein coupled receptor.
The regularity with which viral variants that resist neutralization emerge suggests that such antibodies are potent impediments to viral replication (194). In nonhuman primate models, neutralizing antibodies are associated with slow rates of disease progression (195) and accelerate clearance of both infectious and noninfectious virions (196); furthermore, passive transfer of SHIV-neutralizing antibodies can protect macaques against a subsequent viral challenge (197–200). Some anti-HIV antibodies bind to IgG Fc receptor-positive cells and sensitize them to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against HIVinfected or HIV-coated cells (201,202).
Freshly isolated Langerhans cells (resembling mucosal DC) express CCR5, but not CXCR4, on their surfaces (61); this ﬁnding suggests that infection of DC may be a necessary ﬁrst step in acute infection and that this step is restricted by the expression pattern of HIV coreceptors on DC. However, HIV-pulsed DC from individuals lacking a functional CCR5 gene are capable of transmitting infection to CD4ϩ T cells in vitro (124). Thus, although infection of DC may be dependent on speciﬁc HIV coreceptor expression, the ability of DC to trap virions on their surface and infect CD4ϩ T cells that they encounter is at least in part a coreceptor-independent phenomenon.
AIDS Vaccine Research by Flossie Wong-Staal, Robert C. Gallo