By Marcel Pelgrom
This textbook is acceptable to be used in graduate-level curricula in analog-to-digital conversion, in addition to for working towards engineers short of a cutting-edge reference on information converters. It discusses a number of analog-to-digital conversion rules, together with sampling, quantization, reference iteration, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This booklet provides an summary of the cutting-edge during this box and specializes in problems with optimizing accuracy and velocity, whereas lowering the facility level.
This new, 3rd version emphasizes novel calibration suggestions, the explicit specifications of latest platforms, the implications of 22-nm expertise and the necessity for a extra statistical method of accuracy. Pedagogical improvements to this variation contain extra, new routines, solved examples to introduce all key, new techniques and warnings, comments and tricks, from a practitioner's viewpoint, anywhere applicable. massive heritage details and functional information, from designing a PCB, to lay-out facets, to trade-offs on approach point, supplement the dialogue of uncomplicated ideas, making this publication a helpful reference for the skilled engineer.
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Extra info for Analog-to-Digital Conversion
In the left part of Fig. 6 shows the input spectrum. The right part shows the result after sampling. The tones from the original spectrum are in bold lines, the results of the folding and mirroring around the 44 ks/s sample rate are drawn 5 Other originators for this criterion are named as E. A. Kotelnikov. Landau proved in 1967 for non-baseband and non-uniform sampling that the average sample rate must be twice the occupied bandwidth. 6 Precise mathematicians will now argue that a signal with frequency f D fs;ny =2 cannot be reconstructed, so they should read here: f D fs;ny =2 f , where f goes to zero.
7 MHz. 35 Ms/s signal, Fig. 13. 7 MHz to DC. Two dominant considerations play a role in the choice of the sample rate. A low sample rate results in a low power consumption of the succeeding digital circuitry and less memory if storage is needed. A high sample rate creates a wide empty frequency range and allow easy and cheap alias filtering. 7 MHz 3fs frequency Fig. 35 Ms/s sample pulse 9 In this book the term down-sampling is used for sampling an analog signal with the purpose to perform a frequency shift of the band of interest.
In the time domain the value of the signal between the sample moments is (mathematically spoken) not defined. This stream of samples must at some instant be reconverted in the timecontinuous domain. The first question is what to do with the lacking definition of a signal in between the samples. The most common implementation to deal with this problem is to simply use the value of the signal at the sample moment and to keep it for the entire sample period. 18 (left) shows this “zero-order hold” mode.
Analog-to-Digital Conversion by Marcel Pelgrom