By R D Frandson; Thomas Leslie Spurgeon
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Water replacement is almost entirely by drinking, because minimal amounts of water are produced in the bodies of domestic animals as a result of cellular metabolism (metabolic water). Proteins After water, proteins are the next largest constituent of protoplasm. Proteins are complex high-molecular-weight colloidal molecules consisting primarily of amino acids that are polymerized (joined) into polypeptide chains (Fig. 2-2A). The union of amino acids within a protein molecule is by way of a peptide linkage, a bond between the amino (NH2) group of one amino acid and the carboxyl (COOH) group of another amino acid, with the elimination of water.
This movement across the cell membrane consumes energy produced by the cell and is called active transport. The best-recognized example of a primary active transport system is the sodium– potassium (Na–K) pump. This pump is actually ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE CELL / 35 K+ Extracellular (A) Na+ (B) ATP K+ Extracellular ~P Na+ Intracellular Extracellular (D) Intracellular ADP Extracellular (C) K+ ATP ATP K+ Intracellular ~P Intracellular + + + + Figure 2-14. A schematic representation of the hypothetical operation of the Na –K pump, Na –K -ATPase.
Cells may be found in solutions whose composition is quite different from that of the fluid within the cells. To maintain intracellular homeostasis in these conditions, the passage of particles and water in and out of the cell must be regulated. Absorption is the process of taking dissolved materials or water through the cell membrane into the substance of the cell. This can be a passive process dependent on the forces of diffusion and osmosis, an active process requiring the expenditure of energy from adenosine triphosphate, or the result of electrochemical ionic forces and affinities that require no direct expenditure of energy.
Anatomy and physiology of farm animals by R D Frandson; Thomas Leslie Spurgeon