By Jacob Neusner
Aphrahat (fl. ca. 300-350) used to be a member of a small group of Christians inside of a wide and flourishing Jewish quarter. His paintings Demonstrations give you the earliest and the most effective money owed of the Judaism being practiced there with little rabbinical impression. Neusner interprets these components of
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Extra info for Aphrahat and Judaism: The Christian-Jewish Argument in Fourth-Century Iran
2 When Austria was reestablished after World War II, the project of Austrian nation-building assumed renewed urgency. Culturally the country would still deWne itself as German, but in the wake of the Holocaust, M YT H S A N D S I LE N C ES 31 it was much more opportune to emphasize the qualities that distinguished Austria from Germany proper. It was in this context that the narrative of Austria as Nazi Germany’s Wrst victim was oVered by the reconstituted state as the core of a newly invented Austrian national identity.
44 On the other hand, however, Jews were also seen as particularly adaptable. 45 But that, too, was ultimately seen as a form of exceptionalism. While other peoples lived sedentary existences, Jews distinguished themselves by invading Europe’s national spheres. 46 In the framework of the Krone series, such arguments on Jewish diVerence and inXuence had a number of concrete implications. First and foremost, it allowed Reimann to recast the responsibility for antisemitic persecutions. Between the Jews’ stubborn refusal to abandon their religious isolation and their aggressive inWltration of other peoples, they were themselves to blame for their frequent oppression.
A similar process of resistive pluralization and transidentiWcation characterized Austria’s late 1990s, when lesbisch/schwul was increasingly replaced by the deliberately inclusive les/bi/gay/trans (an American-inXected phrase short for “lesbian/bisexual/gay/transgender”). Queer, which had itself appeared in Austria by the turn of the century, seems the most eVective rendition of this rather cumbersome term. But while I use queer for reasons of politics and aesthetic economy, I am anxious to retain the semantic history and conceptual speciWcity of its antecedents.
Aphrahat and Judaism: The Christian-Jewish Argument in Fourth-Century Iran by Jacob Neusner