By Thomas Ming Swi Chang
This can be a accomplished and primary classification overview of approximately all vital and basic advancements of artifiical cells by means of the nestor of this department in utilized biomedial technological know-how himself. This "bible" is key analyzing for either newcomers and the skilled specialist. Chang wrote an exceptional and stimulating assessment over 50 years of man-made telephone examine and improvement and functions.
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Additional resources for Artificial Cells: Biotechnology, Nanomedicine, Regenerative Medicine, Blood Substitutes, Bioencapsulation, Cell/Stem Cell Therapy (Regenerative Medicine, Artificial Cells and Nanomedicine)
1). A later section will summarize other examples used in drug delivery systems. Nanobiotechnology and artiﬁcial cells Nanobiotechnology is the assembling of biological molecules into nanodimension structures, membranes with nanodimension thickness or nanotubules with nanodimension diameter. The ﬁrst nanobiotechnology approach reported is the crosslinking of hemoglobin into ultrathin polyhemoglobin (PolyHb) membrane with nanodimension thickness (Chang, 1964, 1965) (Fig. 2). This is used to form the membrane of artiﬁcial red blood cells (Chang, 1964, 1965).
This results in less steric hindrance and greater ease of substrate diffusion. This method crosslinks the protein molecules to one another (intermolecular). It can also crosslink each protein molecule internally (intramolecular). , 2002). One of these has been approved for routine use in South Africa (Lok, 2001). Conjugated Hb (Fig. 1) In 1964, Chang showed that in the presence of both diamine and Hb, sebacyl chloride can crosslink hemolgobin to polymers to form insoluble conjugated Hb (Chang, 1964, 1965) (Fig.
Being a solution, PolyHb can more easily perfuse partially obstructed vessels. However, if there is a prolonged lack of oxygen, reperfusion with PolyHb alone may give rise to damaging oxygen radicals, resulting in ischemia-reperfusion injuries. Thus, in a rat stroke model, after 60 min of ischemia, reperfusion with PolyHb resulted in a signiﬁcant increase in the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and an increase in brain water (brain edema) (Powanda and Chang, 2002). On the other hand, polyHb-SOD-CAT did not result in these adverse changes (Powanda and Chang, 2002).
Artificial Cells: Biotechnology, Nanomedicine, Regenerative Medicine, Blood Substitutes, Bioencapsulation, Cell/Stem Cell Therapy (Regenerative Medicine, Artificial Cells and Nanomedicine) by Thomas Ming Swi Chang