By Gary May
While the 15th modification of 1870 granted African american citizens definitely the right to vote, it appeared as though a brand new period of political equality used to be to hand. sooner than lengthy, even though, white segregationists around the South counterattacked, riding their black countrymen from the polls via a mix of sheer terror and insidious units equivalent to advanced literacy checks and dear ballot taxes. so much African americans could stay unvoiced for almost a century extra, electorate in identify purely until eventually the passage of the 1965 vote casting Rights Act secured their entry to the ballot.
In Bending towards Justice, celebrated historian Gary may well describes how black electorate overcame centuries of bigotry to safe and look after one in all their most vital rights as americans. The fight that culminated within the passage of the balloting Rights Act was once lengthy and torturous, and in basic terms succeeded as a result of the brave paintings of neighborhood freedom opponents and nationwide civil rights leaders—as good as, paradoxically, the competition of Southern segregationists and police officers, who gained public sympathy for the vote casting rights circulate through brutally attacking peaceable demonstrators. yet whereas the balloting Rights Act represented an unqualified victory over such forces of hate, may possibly explains that its achievements stay in jeopardy. Many argue that the 2008 election of President Barack Obama rendered the act out of date, but contemporary years have visible renewed efforts to shrink balloting rights and deny minorities the act’s hard-won protections. criminal demanding situations to key sections of the act could quickly lead the splendid courtroom to claim these protections unconstitutional.
A bright, fast paced background of this landmark piece of civil rights laws, Bending towards Justice bargains a dramatic, well timed account of the fight that eventually received African american citizens the ballot—although, as might indicates, the struggle for vote casting rights is under no circumstances over.
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Additional info for Bending Toward Justice: The Voting Rights Act and the Transformation of American Democracy
The rulings of the Justice Department and the requirements of federal agencies, when challenged in the federal courts, were almost always upheld. The economic consequences of these changes were striking. These were the years of greatest relative economic gain by African-Americans. Between 1959 and 1969, mean annual earnings by black men increased by 49 percent, while equivalent white earnings rose by 26 percent. In the decade following passage of the Civil Rights Act, the annual earnings of full-time black workers increased from 63 percent to 73 percent of that of white male workers, while among women workers the black-white earn ings ratio rose from 68 percent to 90 percent.
By 1900 Catholics were the nation's largest single religious group, and their refusal to send their children to the American public schools alarmed patriotic and suspicious Protestants. In 1870 America's Jewish population of 250,000 was predominantly German, cosmopolitan, and rooted in Judaism's liberal or reform tradition. 5 million Jews lived in America, most of them sharing the conservative or orthodox traditions of eastern Europe. 6 Progressive Reformers and the Shame of the Cities Who were the Progressives, and why were they such passionate reform ers?
7 The social justice wing of progressivism supported the settlement house movement, understood that immigrants were vulnerable victims of eco nomic forces they could not control, and campaigned for maximum-hour leg islation and laws limiting child labor. But most middle-class Progressives were animated by a different set of values. These included the canons of Protestant morality, a gospel of efficiency in business and government affairs, and faith in democracy, education, and professional and scientific expertise.
Bending Toward Justice: The Voting Rights Act and the Transformation of American Democracy by Gary May