By Niklas Miller (auth.), Niklas Miller (eds.)
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Canale and Swain (1980) and Canale (1983) stress that communicative competence is an essential part of actual communication. It refers both to knowledge, what one knows consciously or unconsciously about the language and other aspects of communicative language use, as well as to the skill in how well one can use this knowledge in actual communication. This competence includes, then, both the knowledge and the skill which underlie actual communication in a systematic and necessary way. 28 Language Acquisition in Bilingual Children This theoretical framework for communicative competence identifies four areas of knowledge and skill.
The two languages do not develop in a parallel, identical manner, even if the child's underlying cognitive capacity does permit this. From the outset in bilingual communities there is liable to be differentiation of usage between the shades of Ll -+ L2, and learning this pattern is as much a part of the acquisition process as is the development of phonology and syntax. g. when entering school, moving house, gaining a new playmate). L. planning assessment and remediation, the needs of the child should be foremost.
Child: Mucho ingles. Mother: ~ Y tu sabes hablar mucho o poquito espafiol? ) Child: Mucho espafiol. Mother: ~ Y oyes, Uta, a ti te gusta hablar el ingles o el espafiol o los dos? ) Child: Dos. (holds up two fingers) That's ingles. (points to one finger) And that's espafiol! (points to another finger) Of critical importance is an understanding of the fragility of bilingualism for very young children. Removed from a bilingual input and the need to draw on the two language systems for social interactions, a bilingual child can soon lose one of the languages (Elliot, 1981 ).
Bilingualism and Language Disability: Assessment & Remediation by Niklas Miller (auth.), Niklas Miller (eds.)