By Nahikari Irastorza
Are immigrants extra enterprising than natives in Spain? How profitable are migrant marketers in comparison to those that begin companies of their nation of start? With the expansion of migration world wide, questions similar to those are garnering the eye of economists, policymakers and students. Born marketers? asks how foreignness impacts an immigrant's skill to release and to develop a winning enterprise. It additionally explores the industrial and social advantages that immigrants may derive from self-employment and the original components at play in so-called ethnic and immigrant entrepreneurship.
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Extra resources for Born Entrepreneurs?: Immigrant Self-Employment in Spain
Both in 1999 and 2005 the majority of foreigners affiliated with the Social Security department were registered in Catalonia, Madrid, Andalusia, Valencia and the Canary Islands (see Table 5). 21 100 BORN ENTREPRENEURS? 57 Sources: Boletín de Estadísticas Laborales, Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales (INE: Spanish Statistics Institute) number of foreigners registered with the Social Security department in Spain reached 1,400,000, whereas in the Basque Country they numbered over 31,000. Nevertheless, the relative importance of some of these regions, such as Catalonia and Valencia (as well as in other regions where the presence of foreigners was not as important) increased slightly between 1999 and 2005, while it decreased in the case of Andalusia, Madrid and, especially, the Canary Islands.
The number of work permits issued by the Spanish authorities to foreigners increased for all Spanish regions between 1998 and 2005. The highest increase in the annual number of work permits occurred in Castilla La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, La Rioja, the Basque Country and Valencia, and the lowest in Extremadura, Asturias, Catalonia, Andalusia and Madrid. Both in 1999 and 2005, the largest numbers of permits were issued in Madrid, Catalonia, Andalusia, Valencia and Murcia. 78 Source: Boletín de Estadísticas Laborales.
E. ). This second type of deterrents seems to be more widespread in the immigrant community, since they often face additional obstacles associated with the liability of foreignness (Irastorza and Peña 2006). This dissertation aims at extending that previous empirical study on potential immigrant entrepreneurs in two ways: first, by testing whether immigrants are relatively more prone than native individuals to start up firms and, second, by comparing factors linked to potential and actual entrepreneurial activities for immigrants and native individuals.
Born Entrepreneurs?: Immigrant Self-Employment in Spain by Nahikari Irastorza