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Ideally, the bandpass corresponds to the emission line width. 4). The advantage of the fixed-wavelength filter is very small size and low weight and cost. The AOTF, on the other hand, is somewhat larger and requires a power supply, but it can be tuned to monitor different wavelengths. 13a) . In the echelle, a coarse diffraction grating spectrally disperses the light as usual. A prism with its dispersion at right angles to that of the grating, stacks orders vertically over one another so as to create a two-dimensional display of wavelength vs.
Some samples, such as metal alloys and rocks, may have a surface layer composition that is not representative of the underlying bulk composition even though that composition may be highly uniform. g. high in Mn). On the other hand, some elements in molten metal can segregate on the surface as the metal cools, producing a surface composition not representative of the bulk material. Depending on the laser parameters and physical properties of the sample, each interrogation by the laser pulse will produce a sampling depth ranging from a few microns up to perhaps 10–20 µm.
For example, analysis using the ICP generally requires that the sample be chemically ashed to produce a solution that is then nebulized into the ICP plasma. This type of chemical preparation is a time-consuming and sometimes labor-intensive process that precludes rapid sample analysis. Owing to the high focused power densities required to form the plasma, on the order of 10 GW/cm2 , all materials, including non-conducting and refractory compounds, are vaporized. Focusing the laser pulses in a gas or on or below the surface of a liquid also produces an analytically useful laser plasma.
Capillary Electrophoresis in Polymer Analysis