Download e-book for iPad: Capitalism: A Short History by Jürgen Kocka

By Jürgen Kocka

ISBN-10: 069116522X

ISBN-13: 9780691165226

During this e-book, one of many world's most famed historians presents a concise and finished heritage of capitalism inside an international standpoint from its medieval origins to the 2008 monetary quandary and past. From early advertisement capitalism within the Arab international, China, and Europe, to 19th- and twentieth-century industrialization, to today's globalized monetary capitalism, Jürgen Kocka bargains an unequalled account of capitalism, one who weighs its nice achievements opposed to its nice expenses, crises, and screw ups. in line with in depth study, the e-book places the increase of capitalist economies in social, political, and cultural context, and indicates how their present difficulties and foreseeable destiny are hooked up to a protracted history.

Sweeping in scope, the e-book describes how capitalist growth was once attached to colonialism; how industrialism introduced remarkable innovation, development, and prosperity but additionally expanding inequality; and the way managerialism, financialization, and globalization later replaced the face of capitalism. The ebook additionally addresses the assumption of capitalism within the paintings of thinkers comparable to Marx, Weber, and Schumpeter, and chronicles how feedback of capitalism is as outdated as capitalism itself, fed by means of its chronic contradictions and recurrent emergencies.

Authoritative and obtainable, Capitalism is an enlightening account of a strength that has formed the fashionable international like few others.

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Extra info for Capitalism: A Short History

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Qxd:Soros 12/9/09 12:26 PM Page 39 belief that financial markets are self-correcting and should be left to their own devices. President Reagan called it the “magic of the marketplace,” and I call it market fundamentalism. It became the dominant creed in the 1980s, when Ronald Reagan was president of the United States and Margaret Thatcher was prime minister of the United Kingdom. What made the super-bubble so peculiar was the role that financial crises played in making it grow. Since the belief that markets could be safely left to their own devices was false, the superbubble gave rise to a series of financial crises.

Fallibility in this context means not only that our view of the world is always incomplete and distorted but also that in our effort to simplify an extremely complex reality, we often misconstrue it. And our misconceptions play an important role in shaping the course of history. If there is anything really original in my thinking it is this emphasis on misconceptions. It provides a strong argument in favor of critical thinking and open society. P opper did not give an exact definition of open society because he considered exact definitions incompatible with our imperfect understanding.

I described the two kinds of feedback, negative and positive, in the first lecture. Again, negative feedback is self-correcting, and positive feedback is selfreinforcing. Thus, negative feedback sets up a tendency toward equilibrium, but positive feedback produces dynamic disequilibrium. Positive feedback loops are more interesting because they can cause big moves, both in market prices and in the underlying fundamentals. A positive feedback process that runs its full course is initially self-reinforcing in one direction, but eventually it is liable to reach a climax or reversal point, after which it becomes self-reinforcing in the opposite direction.

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Capitalism: A Short History by Jürgen Kocka

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