By Andrew Orta
Nearly 5 centuries after the 1st wave of Catholic missionaries arrived within the New international to unfold their Christian message, modern spiritual staff within the Bolivian highlands have began to motivate Aymara Indians to come back to standard ritual practices. All yet eliminated after thousands of years of missionization, the "old methods" are actually considered as neighborhood cultural expressions of Christian values. that allows you to turn into extra Christian, the Aymara needs to now develop into extra Indian.
This groundbreaking research of the modern come across among Catholic missionaries and Aymara Indians is the 1st ethnography to concentration either at the evangelizers and the evangelized. Andrew Orta explores the pastoral shift clear of liberation theology that ruled Latin American missionization up until eventually the mid-1980s to the new "theology of inculturation," which upholds the ideals and practices of a supposedly pristine Aymara tradition as indigenous expressions of a extra common Christianity. Addressing crucial questions in cultural anthropology, spiritual reports, postcolonial stories, and globalization experiences, Catechizing Culture is a cosmopolitan documentation of the common shift from the politics of sophistication to the politics of ethnicity and multiculturalism.
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Additional info for Catechizing Culture: Missionaries, Aymara, and the New Evangelization
Alongside my work in the lake region, I conducted research with missionaries and catechists in the pastoral zone of Carangas, in the Department of Oruro—also the location of Jaques Monast’s pastoral and ethnographic work. This arid area is among the regions where large ayllu structures remain intact, and this is reﬂected in the organization of the pastoral work. Some four priests, assisted by two brothers, two seminarians, and ﬁve nuns, attend to a dispersed population of highland herders (seventy-six thousand at the time of my initial ﬁeld research) in an area of some thirty thousand square kilometers.
It was the crown’s concern about this sort of maneuvering by the ﬁrst wave of colonial neoelites that led to the appointment of the muscular administrative reformer Toledo. And a muscular reform it was. Toledo’s visitas did more than ratify and incorporate preexisting indigenous society within the colonial framework. 21 The intertwining of cabildo and related forms of local governance with the practices and places of Catholic evangelization are particularly salient to my discussion. Precolonial Machaqa, then, appears as part of a classic highlands polity, controlling land on either side of the river and maintaining access to lands across a range of ecological zones on the western and eastern slopes of the Andes (Bouysse Cassagne 1987; Murra 1967, 1975).
The Case of Jesús de Machaqa Like many highlands regions, Jesús de Machaqa was once part of a larger social unit, comprising contemporary San Andres de Machaqa and Santiago de Machaqa on the opposite bank of the Desaguadero River. The earliest colonial 38 e n ta n g l e d c o m m u n i t i e s accounts of the region describe a population of “Aymara” and “Uru”19 organized in a structure of nested dual opposition: on the west side of the river, what the Spanish dubbed “Machaqa la grande” (greater Machaqa) comprised presentday San Andres and Santiago de Machaqa; on the east side, “Machaqa la chica” (lesser Machaqa), later Jesús de Machaqa, was the complementary moiety half (Choque 1991, 1993, Choque and Ticona 1996, Mercado de Peñalosa 1965).
Catechizing Culture: Missionaries, Aymara, and the New Evangelization by Andrew Orta