By Salvador Garrigues; Miguel da la Guardia
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Extra resources for Challenges in Green Analytical Chemistry
Considering that the eﬀective sample thickness is very small, from a fraction of micrometre to a few micrometres in the MIR region, the fact that internal reﬂection accessories normally produce multiple reﬂections means that the surface layer is sampled multiple times, thus increasing the intensity of the resulting spectra. Many basic ATR attachments have been developed for standard laboratory spectrometers and some of them include probes and ﬂow cells to be used for monitoring chemical processes in the laboratory or on-line.
When two fundamental vibrational transitions absorb energy simultaneously, a combination band can appear. These overtone and combination bands are more complicated to assign than fundamental bands, and provide weak signals in the NIR region between 12 800 and 4000 cmÀ1. On the other hand, Raman spectroscopy is an emission technique in which the sample is radiated with monochromatic visible or NIR laser radiation. This brings the vibration energy levels of the molecule into a short-lived, highcollision state, which returns to a lower energy state by emission of an energy photon.
To avoid excessive heating, samples are cooled. Sputtering is caused by bombardment of the sample surface, and several particles are responsible for this process. GD has been considered as a fairly rough tool only able to analyse bulk materials and rather thick coatings in the micrometre range, making it possible to characterize the elemental composition of a sequence of layers of varying thickness, ranging from nanometres to several micrometres, in a single analysis step without any sample preparation.
Challenges in Green Analytical Chemistry by Salvador Garrigues; Miguel da la Guardia