By Robert Holzmann, David A. Robalino, Noriyuki Takayama
Remaining the assurance hole discusses how social pensions and different retirement source of revenue transfers can be utilized to shut the assurance hole of crucial pension structures. The ebook is prepared in 3 elements. the 1st half makes the case for those courses via assessing the level of the assurance hole all over the world and comparing the vulnerability to poverty of the aged. the second one half stories the stories of low, center and excessive source of revenue international locations with the layout and implementation of retirement source of revenue transfers. The final half specializes in layout concerns. It analyses the motivation impact of those courses on exertions provide and discount rates, economic expenses, the position of focusing on mechanisms, and choices by way of institutional layout and management. The booklet additionally discusses the function of promising tools akin to matching contributions to arrive components of the casual area.
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Additional info for Closing the Coverage Gap: Role of Social Pensions and Other Retirement Income Transfers
Yet this indicator poses serious problems, since many individuals enrolled in the systems are not actually eligible for benefits. Many, if not most, of the social security institutions in developing countries have “dormant accounts” of workers who at some point contributed to the system but who are not currently doing so because they are unemployed or inactive or have joined the informal sector. The records of pension institutions also tend to exaggerate the number of actual affiliates because erroneous or duplicate records are rarely corrected.
Figures in parentheses are t-statistics. 79 2. MEASURING THE COVERAGE GAP 31 Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union have had much higher coverage rates than would have been predicted by their income per capita, particularly at the beginning of the last decade. This outcome was a function of high public sector employment and collectivized agriculture, which made tax collection a matter of transfers within the state apparatus. The transition led to the emergence of small private firms, which are much more difficult to monitor.
From our overview here, it is clear that more needs to be done to gain a better picture of the situation of the elderly around the world, based on common data sources and methods, and, in particular, a better understanding of the intrahousehold distribution of income. A second area is the measurement of the coverage gap. Outside Latin America and a few countries in Asia, we know little about how coverage rates vary by socioeconomic group and geographic area. Although the broad patterns discussed here are likely to hold, it is important to better understand and explain idiosyncratic variations across countries.
Closing the Coverage Gap: Role of Social Pensions and Other Retirement Income Transfers by Robert Holzmann, David A. Robalino, Noriyuki Takayama