By Shakil Awan
-From authors with a mixed 60+ years of expertise in electric measurements performed in nationwide size Laboratories-Offers advice and most sensible perform in electric measurements appropriate to any required accuracy point Contents: the concept that
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Extra info for Coaxial Electrical Circuits for Interference-Free Measurements (Iet Electrical Measurement)
One problem is that of thermoelectric emfs, and fairly rapid source polarity reversal is needed to eliminate drifts in them. A second problem, mostly encountered in high-impedance circuitry, is caused by the phenomenon of dielectric storage of charge in capacitors including inter-conductor and intercomponent insulation. Dielectric materials can store charge within their volume if subjected to a unidirectional voltage. The discharge current can persist, exponentially decaying away in seconds, minutes or even hours once the voltage source is removed or reversed.
The time spent thinking in this more precise way will be amply repaid, particularly in eliminating common-impedance coupling described below. A mains safety conductor is often coloured green/yellow. 9n symbol in our diagrams. Currents that flow around complete circuits give rise to electric and magnetic fields, which cause interaction between circuits and between different parts of the same circuit. The reciprocity theorem is embedded in the theory of all fields, not just electromagnetic. It connects the emanation of fields by a system to the response of that system to external fields.
It is helpful to visualise the circulating currents and the magnetic fields that the currents give rise to, the electric potentials of conductors and the electric fields emanating from the conductors as the physically real entities. , voltmeters, oscilloscopes and spectrum analysers) are regarded as responding to input voltages. It must be remembered at all times that these voltages are only manifestations of currents flowing through impedances between two points in their circulating paths. 1 Basic principles CURRENTS FLOW AROUND COMPLETE CIRCUITS Currents start from a source – for example, a battery, power supply, signal generator, a voltage generated between the ends of a conductor in which another current is flowing – but having traversed a possibly very complicated network of conductors and impedances, subdividing and recombining on the way, they must recombine and return in their entirety to that source.
Coaxial Electrical Circuits for Interference-Free Measurements (Iet Electrical Measurement) by Shakil Awan