By Hugh Davis Graham
Whilst the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965 have been handed, they have been obvious as triumphs of liberal reform applauded by means of the vast majority of american citizens. yet this present day, as Hugh Graham exhibits in Collision path, affirmative motion is foundering within the nice waves of immigration from Asia and Latin the United States, resulting in direct clash for jobs, housing, schooling, and executive choice courses. How did such well-intended legislation come to loggerheads? Graham argues sea swap happened in American political lifestyles within the overdue Sixties, whilst a process of cut up government--one celebration keeping the White condominium, the opposite keeping Congress--divided authority and superior the facility of curiosity teams to win extended advantages. In civil rights, this resulted in a shift from nondiscrimination to the race-conscious treatments of demanding affirmative motion. In immigration, it ended in a surge that by way of 2000 had introduced 35 million immigrants to the United States, 26 million of them Asian or Latin American and accordingly eligible, as "official minorities," for affirmative motion personal tastes. The regulations collided whilst employers, performing below affirmative motion plans, employed hundreds of thousands of immigrants whereas leaving excessive unemployment between inner-city blacks. Affirmative motion for immigrants stirred extensive resentment and drew new awareness to coverage contradictions. Graham sees a afflicted destiny for either courses. because the economic climate weakens and antiterrorist border controls tighten, the contest for jobs will accentuate strain on affirmative motion and invite new regulations on immigration. Graham's insightful interpretation of the unintentional outcomes of those regulations is unique and debatable. a quick, concentrated, and even-handed narrative, it illuminates the various concerns that vex the us at the present time.
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Additional info for Collision Course: The Strange Convergence of Affirmative Action and Immigration Policy in America
The rulings of the Justice Department and the requirements of federal agencies, when challenged in the federal courts, were almost always upheld. The economic consequences of these changes were striking. These were the years of greatest relative economic gain by African-Americans. Between 1959 and 1969, mean annual earnings by black men increased by 49 percent, while equivalent white earnings rose by 26 percent. In the decade following passage of the Civil Rights Act, the annual earnings of full-time black workers increased from 63 percent to 73 percent of that of white male workers, while among women workers the black-white earn ings ratio rose from 68 percent to 90 percent.
By 1900 Catholics were the nation's largest single religious group, and their refusal to send their children to the American public schools alarmed patriotic and suspicious Protestants. In 1870 America's Jewish population of 250,000 was predominantly German, cosmopolitan, and rooted in Judaism's liberal or reform tradition. 5 million Jews lived in America, most of them sharing the conservative or orthodox traditions of eastern Europe. 6 Progressive Reformers and the Shame of the Cities Who were the Progressives, and why were they such passionate reform ers?
7 The social justice wing of progressivism supported the settlement house movement, understood that immigrants were vulnerable victims of eco nomic forces they could not control, and campaigned for maximum-hour leg islation and laws limiting child labor. But most middle-class Progressives were animated by a different set of values. These included the canons of Protestant morality, a gospel of efficiency in business and government affairs, and faith in democracy, education, and professional and scientific expertise.
Collision Course: The Strange Convergence of Affirmative Action and Immigration Policy in America by Hugh Davis Graham