By James A. Cherry, W. Martin Snelgrove
Between analog-to-digital converters, the delta-sigma modulator has cornered the industry on excessive to very excessive answer converters at average speeds, with commonplace purposes resembling electronic audio and instrumentation. curiosity has lately elevated in delta-sigma circuits outfitted with a continuous-time loop clear out instead of the extra universal switched-capacitor strategy. Continuous-time delta-sigma modulators supply much less noisy digital flooring nodes on the enter, inherent safeguard opposed to sign aliasing, and the aptitude to exploit a actual instead of an electric integrator within the first level for novel functions like accelerometers and magnetic flux sensors. extra considerably, they sit back settling time regulations in order that modulator clock premiums may be raised. This opens the opportunity of wideband (1 MHz or extra) converters, in all likelihood to be used in radio purposes at an intermediate frequency in order that a number of levels of combining could be performed within the electronic area.
Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulators for High-Speed A/D Conversion: concept, perform and primary functionality Limits covers all elements of continuous-time delta-sigma modulator layout, with specific emphasis on layout for prime clock speeds. The authors clarify definitely the right layout of such modulators when it comes to the well-understood discrete-time modulator layout challenge and supply layout examples in Matlab. in addition they conceal commonly-encountered non-idealities in continuous-time modulators and the way they degrade functionality, plus a wealth of fabric at the major difficulties (feedback direction delays, clock jitter, and quantizer metastability) in very high-speed designs and the way to prevent them. additionally they supply a concrete layout technique for a true high-speed circuit which illustrates the tradeoffs within the number of key parameters. exact circuit diagrams, simulation effects and try out effects for an built-in continuous-time four GHz band-pass modulator for A/D conversion of one GHz analog indications also are offered.
Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulators for High-Speed A/D Conversion: idea, perform and basic functionality Limits concludes with a few promising modulator architectures and an inventory of the demanding situations that stay during this intriguing box.
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Additional info for Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulators for High-Speed A D Conversion: Theory, Practice and Fundamental Performance Limits (The International Series in Engineering and Computer Science)
The quantization noise then has a band stop shape because the loop filter is band pass, and the resulting ∆ Σ M s are called band pass (BP) converters [Sch91]. A common type of band pass converter is built starting with a low pass H( z) and performing the substitution this produces a converter with noise shaped away from ƒs /4 with identical stability properties and performance as the low pass prototype, though the order is doubled [Sho96]. 7. The spectrum at the output of the converter is shown in the figure—the quantization noise is large everywhere except in a narrow band near 1GHz.
InP second-order CT ∆Σ M by Jensen et al. For certain more complicated modulator structures we will encounter later, the full-scale input range will need to be found from simulation rather than calculation. MAXIMUM SNR AND MAXIMUM STABLE AMPLITUDE Maximum SNR, SNRmax (sometimes called “peak SNR”), is easily found from a DR plot as the peak of the SNR vs. input amplitude curve. It turns out that the second-order low pass ∆Σ M is stable all the way up to an input amplitude of 0dB [Wan92]. It also turns out that higher-order modulators usually become unstable before 0dB is reached; this instability usually manifests itself in clipping of the final integrator output which causes the quantizer to produce a long consecutive sequence of the same output bit.
The major ones are listed and described very briefly here. 1 featured a single integrator, a first-order transfer function, for H(z). In general, the order of H(z) (which must be strictly proper to ensure causality) is the maximum power of z in the denominator. It is possible to use a second-, third-, or even higher-order H(z) as a loop filter; generally, a converter of order m is built as a cascade of m integrators usually surrounded with feedforward and feedback coefficients. 6 [Cha90]. 6. General mth-order low pass ∆ ∑M structure.
Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulators for High-Speed A D Conversion: Theory, Practice and Fundamental Performance Limits (The International Series in Engineering and Computer Science) by James A. Cherry, W. Martin Snelgrove