Crude Existence: Environment and the Politics of Oil in by Kristin Reed PDF

By Kristin Reed

ISBN-10: 0520258223

ISBN-13: 9780520258228

After a long time of civil battle and instability, the African kingdom of Angola is experiencing a stunning financial increase because of its most useful normal source: oil. yet oil extraction--both on- and offshore--is a poisonous therapy for the country's fiscal ills, with devastating results on either the surroundings and standard livelihoods. concentrating on the typical realities of individuals residing within the extraction zones, Kristin Reed explores the exclusion, degradation, and violence which are the culmination of petrocapitalism in Angola.

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Additional resources for Crude Existence: Environment and the Politics of Oil in Northern Angola (Global, Area, and International Archive)

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23 Producing Distortions Apart from the well-connected few who receive jobs and contracts in the oil industry, Angolans see few benefits from their country’s oil wealth though they suffer its distorting effects. The extraction and export of non-renewable resources can ultimately render oil-dependent economies poorer. Prescient structural theorists warned against development centered on resource exports for three reasons: (1) ever worsening terms of trade tend to exacerbate inequality between rich industrialized countries and poor primary commodity exporters; (2) international commodities markets are marked by drastic price fluctuations; and (3) the dominance of foreign multinationals in resource extraction impedes growth in the rest of the economy because these companies repatriate their profits rather than making local investments (Ross 1999).

By the time Agostinho Neto passed away in September 1979, the party’s membership had fallen to 16,500 from independence-era levels of 60,000 in 1975 (CR 2004). 49 Oil revenues filled state coffers and Cuban soldiers equipped with Soviet Kalashnikovs protected government interests; the MPLA no longer needed the oncecherished poder popular. Exclusion and oil dependency reinforced one another and increasingly defined Angola’s postcolonial political economy along the contours of extraction. 50 Regrettably, the war continued to raze agricultural lands and terrorize farmers while extensive minefields undercut their productive capacity; only 2–3 percent of arable land was cultivated in the mid-1980s (Gunn 1987).

The new drillships operate in waters up to 3,000 meters deep, boring through an additional 6,000 meters of subsurface rock and sediment to reach oil deposits (Mouawad 2005). Many of the units also feature directional drilling, facilitating horizontal access to deposits. , measures 205 meters long and 30 meters wide, stores up to 1,800 cubic meters of drilling mud, and features a derrick with 680 metric tons of lifting capacity (Manchon 2003:34). This deepwater drillship leased for a daily fee of $162,000 in 2005, but other ultra-deepwater drilling vessels cost up to $250,000 per day depending upon their capacity (Rach 2003; Gazaniol 2003:40).

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Crude Existence: Environment and the Politics of Oil in Northern Angola (Global, Area, and International Archive) by Kristin Reed

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