By Robert J. Matthys
A brand new harmonic oscillator circuit (which is the easiest in its type) and a brand new bridge oscillator circuit were additional to this variation; either circuits are of exceptional functionality. This useful treatise additionally areas all kinds of oscillator circuits in a typical framework to give an explanation for their layout and study their functionality. genuine operating circuits are given for all of the uncomplicated kinds, and comparisons are made among them. the whole frequency variety is roofed, from 1 kHz to a hundred mHz.
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Additional resources for Crystal Oscillator Circuits
A thermistor (which has a negative temperature coefficient of resistance) can also be used for amplitude control by putting it in the half-bridge in place of Es. Oscillation amplitude must be at least four times greater if a thermistor is used rather than a diode clamp, since the thermistor requires a minimum of 4-6 Vp-p to properly activate its negative resistance characteristic. Greater oscillation amplitude increases power dissipation in the crystal, which is undesirable. The advantage of the Meacham is its extremely good short-term frequency stability.
The second stage inverts the signal and provides positive feedback. 8X. The value of the emitter resistor RI is set equal to about twice the crystal’s internal series resistance R,. When the crystal is tied in parallel with R,, the effective resistance of the emitter resistor is reduced at series resonance, since the crystal’s internal resistance R, is in parallel with RI. This raises both stage gain and overall loop gain to about 2X, and the circuit oscillates at the crystal’s series-resonant frequency.
The FET overloads as a gate-to-drain diode clamp at the positive peak of the input waveform, but the 5 to 1 voltage divider hides it from the crystal. The input capacitance of the FET amplifier in Fig. 13 is 4 pF, which requires capacitive compensation C3 of the resistive voltage divider. 13. High resistance load circuit. COMMON BASE 41 MHz are much lower than the resistance of the voltage divider, which means that the divider is really a capacitive divider rather than a resistive one, It also means a 90” phase lag, because the crystal’s current is measured by the voltage drop across ;t capacitor rather than across a resistor.
Crystal Oscillator Circuits by Robert J. Matthys