By Joseph H. Carens
This ebook contributes to modern debates approximately multiculturalism and democratic idea by way of reflecting upon the ways that claims approximately tradition and identification are literally complicated through immigrants, nationwide minorities, aboriginals and different teams in a couple of diverse societies. Carens advocates a contextual method of conception that explores the results of theoretical perspectives for real circumstances, displays at the normative ideas embedded in perform, and takes account of the ways that transformations among societies topic. He argues that this kind of contextual process will convey why the normal liberal knowing of justice as neutrality has to be supplemented by way of a notion of justice as evenhandedness and why the normal belief of citizenship is an highbrow and ethical felony from which we will be able to be liberated by means of an figuring out of citizenship that's extra open to multiplicity and that grows out of practices we pass judgement on to be simply and useful.
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Extra resources for Culture, Citizenship, and Community: A Contextual Exploration of Justice as Evenhandedness
Unfortunately, Walzer's picture of the moral autonomy of political communities would lead away from the kind of contextual inquiry that he invites. Moral Community and Political Community Walzer claims that justice is what the people in a particular community think it is. More precisely, he argues that when goods are distributed in accordance with the meaning that people in a community attach to those goods, then the goods are distributed justly. The most striking illustration of this argument is his discussion of a caste system in which, by hypothesis, all participants agree to the principles governing the caste system.
But this development is not societally speciﬁc. Its cultural and historical characteristics are shared by many contemporary societies whose cultures differ in other ways. The liberal democratic conception of justice may not be a universally shared understanding, but it is certainly one that is shared across the borders of many different political communities. Many arguments of this kind can be found in Spheres, not only in the critique of the treatment of guestworkers cited above, but in many parts of the discussion of money, power, ofﬁce, and so on.
Nor do I mean to suggest that recognition of this wider moral community resolves all of the puzzles about the connections between justice, culture, and political community. On the contrary, it opens the door to more complexity. Even if we assume a shared commitment to liberal democratic principles, we have to acknowledge (1) some range of morally permissible implementations on any given account of the principles and (2) some range of reasonable disagreement about how to interpret the principles themselves.
Culture, Citizenship, and Community: A Contextual Exploration of Justice as Evenhandedness by Joseph H. Carens