By Michael Coppedge
Democratization and examine equipment is a coherent survey and critique of either democratization learn and the method of comparative politics. the 2 topics improve one another: the democratization literature illustrates the benefits and drawbacks of assorted methodological ways, and the critique of tools is smart of the significant and bewildering democratization box. Michael Coppedge argues that every of the 3 major ways in comparative politics - case reviews and comparative histories, formal modeling, and large-sample statistical research - accomplishes one basic study target quite good: "thickness," integration, and generalization, respectively. in the course of the booklet, finished surveys of democratization learn exhibit that every procedure accomplishes this kind of objectives good however the different poorly. Chapters conceal conceptualization and dimension, case reviews and comparative histories, formal versions and theories, political tradition and survey learn, and quantitative checking out. the ultimate bankruptcy summarizes the kingdom of data approximately democratization and lays out an schedule for multimethod learn.
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Similarly, point predictions would be substantively unaffected provided that the bias is systematic; that is, it affects all observations, and it is present for both the estimation of the model and the generation of predictions. Of course, point predictions are misleading when measurement error biases some observations but not others. Levels of measurement In addition to their consequences for case and model selection and inferences, choices about concepts influence the level of measurement that can be attempted.
Practitioners of different approaches to comparative politics have jealously disputed one another's claims to theoretical understanding. Area studies specialists have accused quantitative comparativists of either comparing the incomparable or quantifying the obvious. Statistical analysts have condescendingly thanked country experts for digging up the anecdotal evidence that only multicountry comparisons can transmute into theory. Both complain about the lack of realism in rational-choice theory, yet formal theorists have tried to brand propositions in both large-sample and case-study 1 2 This quality is more commonly called truth preserving, which is a misnomer, because logic and mathematics can preserve either truth or fiction, depending on the nature of the assumptions.
If these errors are random, then this is all the caution that is necessary. However, the only way to know whether there is systematic measurement error is to analyze many measurements systematically. Two of the most sophisticated such analyses did find systematic error in several common indicators in 16 The Bollen and Paxton article replicates and extends somewhat on Bollen (1993). These articles report confirmatory factor analyses to estimate the source bias and random measurement error in eight indicators that were presumed to measure political liberties and democratic rule; see also Hadenius and Teorell (2005).
Democratization and Research Methods by Michael Coppedge