By Alvaro Macieira-Coelho
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Extra resources for Developmental biology of neoplastic growth
1999; Kleer et al. 2002) and recent microarray data reveal that RhoC overexpression in inflammatory breast cancer leads to upregulation of multiple genes involved in cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. The involvement of RhoC downstream genetic targets in these cellular processes supports a role for RhoC in promoting metastasis of breast tumors (Wu et al. 2004). Protein expression level does not always reflect the active, functional pool of a protein, and thus alterations in expression level do not necessarily result in concomitant signaling changes in vivo.
In most cell types, NF-κB is sequestered in the cytoplasm by an inhibitory protein designated inhibitor of κB (IκB). Upon activation, IκB becomes phosphorylated, and is targeted for degradation by the proteasome. Kinases responsible for the phosphorylation of IκB include IκB kinase α (IKKα) and IκB kinase β (IKKβ). In the absence of IκB, NF-κB translocates to the nucleus where it induces the transcription of target genes. A number of studies have correlated Rac-1 mediated activation of PAK1 with the induction of NF-κB activity.
Cancer Res 62:5867–5873 Lum L, Zhang C, Oh S, Mann RK, von Kessler DP, Taipale J, Weis-Garcia F, Gong R, Wang B, Beachy PA (2003) Hedgehog signal transduction via Smoothened association with a cytoplasmic complex scaffolded by the atypical kinesin, Costal-2. Mol Cell 12:1261– 1274 Ma Y, Erkner A, Gong R, Yao S, Taipale J, Basler K, Beachy PA (2002) Hedgehog-mediated patterning of the mammalian embryo requires transporter-like function of dispatched. Cell 111:63–75 Machold R, Hayashi S, Rutlin M, Muzumdar MD, Nery S, Corbin JG, Gritli-Linde A, Dellovade T, Porter JA, Rubin LL, Dudek H, McMahon AP, Fishell G (2003) Sonic hedgehog is required for progenitor cell maintenance in telencephalic stem cell niches.
Developmental biology of neoplastic growth by Alvaro Macieira-Coelho