By Chack-kie Wong, Alan Walker
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Extra info for East Asian welfare regimes in transition: From Confucianism to globalisation
Davis, D. and Harrell, S. (1991) ‘The impact of post-Mao reforms on family life’, in D. Davis and S. Harrell (eds) Chinese families in the post-Mao era, London: University of California Press, pp 1-24. T. (1995/96) ‘The new Confucianism in Beijing’, Cross Currents, vol 4, no 45, pp 479-87. England, J. and Rear, J. (1975) Chinese labour under British rule, Hong Kong: Oxford. E. (1990) ‘The distinctive features of two city-states development: Hong Kong and Singapore’, in P. H. Hsiao (eds) In search of an East Asian development model, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
A striking example is an expansion of welfare-to-work programmes. These programmes represent the governments’ intention to deregulate the labour market and to shift its emphasis from creating employment to increasing workers’ employability. These requirements not only reduce users’ freedom in organising their lives, but also make the provision of social services more conditional than if based on social rights. The Hong Kong economy has been badly hit by the Asian crisis. Hence the Hong Kong SAR government is keen to launch reforms to please capitalists and encourage the public by ‘stick and carrot’ to take a more active part in the private market so as to rely less on social welfare.
Fong (1990) recorded that Singapore has nearly 500 government-owned companies and statutory boards responsible for steel mills, electronics, oil refining, hotels, shipbuilding, repairing, shipping, financial services, air transport and property development. Hoogvelt (1997) even argued that the East Asian governments not only guide but also distort market decisions. The experiences of Hong Kong and mainland China also show the importance of government intervention in society, especially in the provision of social welfare.
East Asian welfare regimes in transition: From Confucianism to globalisation by Chack-kie Wong, Alan Walker