By Daniel E. Zalewski
Exact modeling of nuclear cloud upward thrust is important in risk prediction following a nuclear detonation. This thesis recommends advancements to the version at present utilized by DOD. It considers a single-term as opposed to a three-term entrainment equation, the price of the entrainment and eddy viscous drag parameters, in addition to the impression of wind shear within the cloud upward push following a nuclear detonation. It examines departures from the 1979 model of the dept of security Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC) with the present code utilized in the threat Prediction and overview power (HPAC) code model 3.2. the advice for a single-term entrainment equation, with consistent price parameters, with no wind shear corrections, and with out cloud oscillations relies on either a statistical research utilizing sixty seven U.S. nuclear atmospheric attempt photographs and the actual illustration of the modeling. The statistical research optimized the parameter values of curiosity for 4 circumstances: the three-term entrainment equation with wind shear and with out wind shear in addition to the single-term entrainment equation with and with out wind shear. The thesis then examines the impression of cloud oscillations as an important departure within the code. variations to consumer enter atmospheric tables are pointed out as a possible challenge within the calculation of stabilized cloud dimensions in HPAC.
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Extra info for Effect of Entrainment and Wind Shear on Nuclear Cloud Rise Modeling
5 = = . The replacement rule then r 4r 2r follows from this surface to volume relationship to increase the mass change due to entrainment. 5 µ v → µ ( v + k6 vs ) V V Rc (27) where k6 = dimensionless empirical constant 31 Here, vs is the magnitude of the vector difference between the top and the bottom of the cloud. v v vs = v ( z + H c ) − v ( z − H c ) (28) Figure 4. ”(10:2-8 – 2-9) More error can be attributed to round off and approximations in the model than associated with wind shear. There was, however, a substantial increase in the cloud radius when shear was taken into account.
V v vs = v ( z + H c ) − v ( z − H c ) (28) Figure 4. ”(10:2-8 – 2-9) More error can be attributed to round off and approximations in the model than associated with wind shear. There was, however, a substantial increase in the cloud radius when shear was taken into account. This increase will result in a broader fallout pattern from the transport model. Huebsch’s study did not include a large number of test cases and he does indicate that a few hundred-meter affect could be significant given the sensitivity to changes in the atmosphere.
10, as did the recent study by McGahan. 14. E. Figures of Merit The primary cloud dimension that will be used to determine the constant best-fit parameter values for entrainment and eddy viscous drag will be the observed and calculated cloud top height relative to the burst height. This is the same set of values used by Norment in his initial validation as well as Jodoin, Lamarche, and McGahan in their subsequent validations. The primary reason for using the cloud top values is that they are the values that have been consistently recorded for the multitude of tests that were conducted.
Effect of Entrainment and Wind Shear on Nuclear Cloud Rise Modeling by Daniel E. Zalewski