Read e-book online Effect of Entrainment and Wind Shear on Nuclear Cloud Rise PDF

By Daniel E. Zalewski

Exact modeling of nuclear cloud upward thrust is important in risk prediction following a nuclear detonation. This thesis recommends advancements to the version at present utilized by DOD. It considers a single-term as opposed to a three-term entrainment equation, the price of the entrainment and eddy viscous drag parameters, in addition to the impression of wind shear within the cloud upward push following a nuclear detonation. It examines departures from the 1979 model of the dept of security Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC) with the present code utilized in the threat Prediction and overview power (HPAC) code model 3.2. the advice for a single-term entrainment equation, with consistent price parameters, with no wind shear corrections, and with out cloud oscillations relies on either a statistical research utilizing sixty seven U.S. nuclear atmospheric attempt photographs and the actual illustration of the modeling. The statistical research optimized the parameter values of curiosity for 4 circumstances: the three-term entrainment equation with wind shear and with out wind shear in addition to the single-term entrainment equation with and with out wind shear. The thesis then examines the impression of cloud oscillations as an important departure within the code. variations to consumer enter atmospheric tables are pointed out as a possible challenge within the calculation of stabilized cloud dimensions in HPAC.

Show description

Read Online or Download Effect of Entrainment and Wind Shear on Nuclear Cloud Rise Modeling PDF

Best assessment books

New PDF release: Balancing dilemmas in assessment and learning in

This ebook makes a speciality of dilemmas inherent within the perform of overview within the modern context. New different types of evaluate are being brought in all sectors of schooling and coaching, and the tradition of overview is moving. The authors during this quantity talk about the perform of evaluate, reporting empirical learn on modes of overview inside numerous academic contexts, whereas additionally addressing conceptual and theoretical elements of review.

James H. McMillan's SAGE Handbook of Research on Classroom Assessment SAGE PDF

The Sage guide of study on school room evaluation presents students, professors, graduate scholars, and different researchers and coverage makers within the corporations, businesses, trying out businesses, and college districts with a accomplished resource of analysis on all points of K-12 school room overview. The instruction manual emphasizes conception, conceptual frameworks, and all different types of examine (quantitative, qualitative, combined equipment) to supply an in-depth figuring out of the information base in each one region of school room evaluation and the way to behavior inquiry within the sector.

Extra info for Effect of Entrainment and Wind Shear on Nuclear Cloud Rise Modeling

Example text

5 = = . The replacement rule then r 4r 2r follows from this surface to volume relationship to increase the mass change due to entrainment. 5 µ v → µ ( v + k6 vs ) V V Rc (27) where k6 = dimensionless empirical constant 31 Here, vs is the magnitude of the vector difference between the top and the bottom of the cloud. v v vs = v ( z + H c ) − v ( z − H c ) (28) Figure 4. ”(10:2-8 – 2-9) More error can be attributed to round off and approximations in the model than associated with wind shear. There was, however, a substantial increase in the cloud radius when shear was taken into account.

V v vs = v ( z + H c ) − v ( z − H c ) (28) Figure 4. ”(10:2-8 – 2-9) More error can be attributed to round off and approximations in the model than associated with wind shear. There was, however, a substantial increase in the cloud radius when shear was taken into account. This increase will result in a broader fallout pattern from the transport model. Huebsch’s study did not include a large number of test cases and he does indicate that a few hundred-meter affect could be significant given the sensitivity to changes in the atmosphere.

10, as did the recent study by McGahan. 14. E. Figures of Merit The primary cloud dimension that will be used to determine the constant best-fit parameter values for entrainment and eddy viscous drag will be the observed and calculated cloud top height relative to the burst height. This is the same set of values used by Norment in his initial validation as well as Jodoin, Lamarche, and McGahan in their subsequent validations. The primary reason for using the cloud top values is that they are the values that have been consistently recorded for the multitude of tests that were conducted.

Download PDF sample

Effect of Entrainment and Wind Shear on Nuclear Cloud Rise Modeling by Daniel E. Zalewski


by David
4.4

Rated 4.69 of 5 – based on 20 votes