By Christopher P. Atwood
From Genghis Khan to the arid wastes of the Gobi wilderness, from the Soviet Unions so much Stalinist satellite tv for pc to the 1st Asian communist kingdom to embody democracy, Mongolia has continually been a space of poser and dread to westerners. Studied at school as a part of the middle curriculum, the Mongol Empire as soon as stretched throughout Asia from the Pacific Ocean to Kiev and Baghdad. nowa days, curiosity in Mongolia has been abruptly sparked by means of the hole up of the rustic after 70 years of isolation within the Communist block. this primary accomplished A-to-Z encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongols offers updated, actual, and readable entries on all points of this peoples turbulent historical past and wealthy tradition, from prehistory to fashionable instances. whereas specific emphasis is put on the Mongol Empire, entries hide the countrys complete historical past and variety from geography to tradition and faith to personalities, battles, way of life, and folklore.
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Extra info for Encyclopedia of Mongolian and the Mongol Empire
Became puppet khans with Oirat support. Ariq-Qaya (Ali-Haiya) (1227–1287) Uighur peasant’s son who under Qubilai Khan became one of the conquerors of South China Born a peasant, Ariq-Qaya studied the UIGHUR-MONGOLIAN script for a month and went to Mongolia to seek his fortune, joining the prince Qubilai’s entourage. After Qubilai was elected great khan in 1260, Ariq-Qaya rose through the ranks of the secretariat. From 1268 he assisted AJU and Liu Zheng (1213–75) in their siege of Xiangyang (modern Xiangfan).
REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD Against the occupation of Khüriye first by about 8,000 Chinese soldiers and then by BARON ROMAN FEDOROVICH VON UNGERN-STERNBERG’s 11,400 soldiers of mixed origin, the 1921 revolutionaries, armed and trained by Soviet Russia, originally planned to fight a partisan or guerrilla war. In June 1921, however, the Russian Red Army intervened in force, sending 13,100 troops into Khüriye under K. A. Neiman. The partisan forces that made up the “People’s” or “Democratic Army” (Arad-un jirumtu tserig/Ardyn juramt tsereg) numbered around 700 before the revolutionary victory.
V. Prschewalski, Reisen in der Mongolei, im Gebiet der Tanguten und der Wüsten Nordtibets ) Under the QING DYNASTY (1636–1912) training in archery was required of all bannermen. The military compound bow used was only about 1 1/4 meters (four feet) long, although ones more than two meters (six feet) long were also used for hunting. Bows were composed of a goat horn or deer antler core covered by wood (larch, elm, or bamboo) and wrapped in animal tendons. The bow’s powerful tension made it spring back when unstrung, and Mongolian EPICS frequently cite the difficult task of stringing a powerful bow as the distinguishing test of the hero.
Encyclopedia of Mongolian and the Mongol Empire by Christopher P. Atwood