By Geoff Daniels
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2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1 ABO antigens, antibodies, and genotypes. ABO group Antigens on red cells Antibodies in serum Genotype O None Anti-A,B O/O A A Anti-B A/A or A/O B B Anti-A B/B or B/O AB A and B None A/B O from O/O. Although many variations of the ABO phenotypes exist, almost all are basically quantitative modifications of the A and B antigens. Landsteiner’s rule states that individuals lacking A or B antigen from their red cells have the corresponding antibody in their plasma.
Yves Lapierre discovered a gel method to capture haemagglutination, which was developed by DiaMed AG. 6) The ‘no-wash’ technique is possible because, Techniques used in blood grouping | 17 Antibody detection Binding to the solid phase Erythrocytes + = Antibody AHG Activated solid phase Fig. 5 The Solid Phase Microplate method for the IAT has the AHG bound to the well of the microplate. Antibody bound to red cells bind to the solid phase AHG and haemagglutination is observed after unbound globulins are washed free.
Such inactivating mutations are common in FUT2. The most common Caucasian FUT2-inactivating mutation converts the codon for tryptophan-143 to a translation stop codon. In group A and B non- secretors, the A and B genes are active in the endodermal tissues and produce active transferases in the secretions, but these enzymes are unable to catalyse the synthesis of A and B antigens in the secretions because their acceptor substrate, the H antigen, is absent. The biochemically related Lewis system is described in Chapter 5.
Essential guide to blood groups by Geoff Daniels