By George F. Madaus, M. Scriven, D.L. Stufflebeam
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Lloyd, 1967, p. 63) Only an evaluation drawing on the best from various models can document the effects of the complexity of the teaching maquim: constraint with freedom, com- 26 I. Program Evaluation: An Introduction munal taste with individual fantasy, fixed model with fluid treatment, traditional constancy with novel creative moments, sameness with difference. DEFINITIONS OF EVALUATION We now present a collection of definitions of program evaluation culled from the writings of evaluation theorists and practitioners, past and present.
Evaluators need to be cautious in how they relate to the public relations activities of their sponsors, clients, and supervisors. Certainly, public relations documents will reference information from sound evaluations. Evaluators should persuade their audiences to make honest use of the evaluation findings. Evaluators should not be party to misuses, especially in cases where erroneous reports are issued that predictably will mislead readers to believe that a seriously flawed program is effective.
42 I. Program Evaluation: An Introduction The advance organizers for the accountability study are the persons and groups responsible for producing results, the service providers’ work responsibilities, and the expected outcomes. The study’s purposes are to provide constituents with an accurate accounting of results; ensure, though something akin to intimidation, that the results are primarily positive; and pinpoint responsibility for good and bad outcomes. Sometimes accountability programs administer sanctions to the responsible service providers, depending on the extent and quality of their services and achievement.
Evaluation Models - Viewpoints on Educational and Human Services Evaluation by George F. Madaus, M. Scriven, D.L. Stufflebeam