In so much elements of the built international, the development inventory and the civil infrastructure are growing old and in consistent want of upkeep, fix and upgrading. furthermore, within the gentle of our present wisdom and of recent codes, the vast majority of constructions inventory and different kinds of buildings in lots of elements of the realm are substandard and poor. this can be particularly so in earthquake-prone areas, as, even there, seismic layout of constructions is comparatively contemporary. In these areas the foremost a part of the seismic danger to human existence and estate comes from outdated buildings.
Due to the infrastructure's expanding decay, often mixed with the necessity for structural upgrading to fulfill extra stringent layout necessities (especially opposed to seismic loads), structural retrofitting is changing into an increasing number of very important and gets this day significant emphasis in the course of the global. in accordance with this want, an immense a part of the fib version Code 2005, at the moment below improvement, is being dedicated to structural conservation and upkeep. extra importantly, in attractiveness of the significance of the seismic probability coming up from current substandard structures, the 1st criteria for structural upgrading to be promoted through the overseas engineering neighborhood and by way of regulatory gurus alike are for seismic rehabilitation of structures. this is often the case, for instance, of half three: Strengthening and service of constructions of Eurocode eight (i. e. of the draft eu ordinary for earthquake-resistant design), and that's the one one amongst the present (2003) set of fifty eight Eurocodes trying to tackle the matter of structural upgrading. it's also the case of the hot (2001) ASCE draft normal on Seismic review of current structures and of the 1996 legislations for promoting of seismic strengthening of current bolstered concrete constructions in Japan.
As famous in bankruptcy 1 of this Bulletin, fib - as CEB and FIP did earlier than - has positioned substantial emphasis on evaluate and rehabilitation of present buildings. the current Bulletin is a end result of this attempt within the specified yet vitally important box of seismic evaluate and rehabilitation. it's been elaborated over a interval of four years via job workforce 7.1 evaluation and retrofit of current buildings of fib fee 7 Seismic layout, a very foreign group of specialists, representing the services and adventure of all of the very important seismic areas of the area. during its paintings the crew had six plenary two-day conferences: in January 1999 in Pavia, Italy; in August 1999 in Raleigh, North Carolina; in February 2000 in Queenstown, New Zealand; in July 2000 in Patras, Greece; in March 2001 in Lausanne, Switzerland; and in August 2001 in Seattle, Washington. In October 2002 the ultimate draft of the Bulletin used to be offered to public through the 1st fib Congress in Osaka. It was once additionally there that it was once licensed through fib fee 7 Seismic Design.
The contents is based into major chapters as follows:
1 advent - 2 functionality targets and procedure concerns - three evaluate of seismic evaluation techniques - four power and deformation potential of non-seismically particular elements - five Seismic retrofitting suggestions - 6 Probabilistic ideas and techniques - 7 Case experiences
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Canale and Swain (1980) and Canale (1983) stress that communicative competence is an essential part of actual communication. It refers both to knowledge, what one knows consciously or unconsciously about the language and other aspects of communicative language use, as well as to the skill in how well one can use this knowledge in actual communication. This competence includes, then, both the knowledge and the skill which underlie actual communication in a systematic and necessary way. 28 Language Acquisition in Bilingual Children This theoretical framework for communicative competence identifies four areas of knowledge and skill.
The two languages do not develop in a parallel, identical manner, even if the child's underlying cognitive capacity does permit this. From the outset in bilingual communities there is liable to be differentiation of usage between the shades of Ll -+ L2, and learning this pattern is as much a part of the acquisition process as is the development of phonology and syntax. g. when entering school, moving house, gaining a new playmate). L. planning assessment and remediation, the needs of the child should be foremost.
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FIB 24: Seismic assessment and retrofit of reinforced concrete buildings