By Guy Fletcher
A contemporary development in metaethics has been to reject the plain selection among natural cognitivism, the place ethical (and different normative) judgments are understood as representational or belief-like states, and natural non-cognitivism, the place they're understood as non-representational or desire-like states. particularly, philosophers have followed perspectives which search indirectly to mix the strengths of every facet whereas fending off the normal difficulties for every. a few such perspectives declare that ethical judgments are complexes of belief-like and desire-like elements. different perspectives declare that normative language serves either to ascribe houses and to precise desire-like attitudes. This number of twelve new essays examines the clients for such 'hybrid perspectives' of normative idea and language. The papers, which concentration normally on ethical inspiration and speak, supply a advisor to this debate whereas additionally pushing it ahead alongside quite a few fronts.
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Extra resources for Having It Both Ways: Hybrid Theories and Modern Metaethics
T. Geach’s own objection to direct illocutionary force theories of meaning:11 (19) Insulting others is wrong. (20) If insulting others is wrong, then getting one’s little brother to insult others is wrong. (21) Therefore getting one’s little brother to insult others is wrong. Geach observes that even assuming (19) and (21) are conventionally used to directly express a speaker’s mental states or to directly prescribe behavior, they are not conventionally used to perform these acts when they are embedded in (20).
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. How to Insult a Philosopher 21 Smith, M. 1994. The Moral Problem. Oxford: Blackwell. Strandberg, C. 2012. ” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 84:87–122. Street, S. 2008. ” In Oxford Studies in Metaethics, vol. 3, ed. R. Shafer-Landau, 207–245. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Tubert, A. 2010. ” Philosophy Compass 5:656–666. 1 Some theories of meaning accomplish this task for a language’s declarative sentences (“Rocks are hard,” “Today is Tuesday”) by using machinery found in a suitably constrained theory of truth.
If the street lights are on, come home. If you cleaned up the room, thank you. Still, if expressivism holds that moral declaratives work in most important ways like nondeclaratives, one strategy for expressivism is to examine the more promising meaning theories for nondeclaratives and determine to what extent they may be able to adopt those theories to account for the meanings of moral declaratives. One of the more promising theories for nondeclaratives is SCS, so in the third part I examine the extent to which expressivism can adopt such a theory.
Having It Both Ways: Hybrid Theories and Modern Metaethics by Guy Fletcher