By Kiara M. Vigil
Within the united states this present day, debates between, among, and inside Indian international locations proceed to target find out how to be certain and outline the limits of Indian ethnic identification and tribal citizenship. From the Eighteen Eighties and into the Thirties, many local humans participated in related debates as they faced white cultural expectancies relating to what it intended to be an Indian in sleek American society. utilizing shut readings of texts, pictures, and public performances, this ebook examines the literary output of 4 influential American Indian intellectuals who challenged long-held conceptions of Indian id on the flip of the 20 th century. Kiara M. Vigil strains how the narrative discourses created by way of those figures spurred wider discussions approximately citizenship, race, and modernity within the usa and in different places. by means of environment them in discussion with white American tradition, Vigil demonstrates how those figures deployed facets of local American cultural perform to authenticate their prestige either as indigenous peoples and as voters of the U.S..
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Additional info for Indigenous Intellectuals: Sovereignty, Citizenship, and the American Imagination, 1880-1930
For the comparison to Sojourner Truth I look to Nell Painter’s Sojourner Truth: A Life, A Symbol (1996). 25 “The Red Man’s Rebuke,” 2. LaVonne Brown Ruoff, “Simon Pokagon,” in Dictionary of Native American Literature, edited by Andrew Wiget (1994). 27 Gertrude Bonnin speaks on behalf of her race in 1918 when writing her editorial comment on the work of the Society of American Indians in its periodical American Indian Magazine, from which the epigraph for this introduction is taken. 28 Robert Warrior, Tribal Secrets: Recovering American Indian Intellectual Traditions (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995), xx.
By this I mean how to use speech, language, and other nonverbal forms of expressive action to intervene in American culture and politics. For them, public appearances often required a speaker to perform (or play) Indian, to visually and rhetorically represent oneself in terms that conjured a strategic sort of ethnic authenticity. The problem in this type of performative move came at particular moments. For Eastman, I consider how his use of certain forms of costuming fed into a self-perpetuating market for Indianness.
I acknowledge this framework, but situate my reading instead in the context of the Midwestern geography and culture that Pokagon found familiar and his awareness of the urban site of Chicago and the Fair where he intended to circulate this pamphlet. For more from her analysis see: Penelope Myrtle Kelsey, Tribal Theory in Native American Literature: Dakota and Haudenosaunee Writing and Indigenous Worldviews (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2008), 3. 24 As a result of a typeset printing process, Pokagon’s “Rebuke” gave the appearance of both handwork and mass production.
Indigenous Intellectuals: Sovereignty, Citizenship, and the American Imagination, 1880-1930 by Kiara M. Vigil