By Prof. Dr. Jens Hagen(auth.)
Even though greater than ninety% of creation strategies in are catalyzed, such a lot chemists and engineers are limited to trial and mistake whilst trying to find the right kind catalyst. This e-book is the 1st emphasizing commercial facets of catalysis and likewise relatively compatible to learning on one's personal. it's devoted to either, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and during this moment, variation biocatalysis, electrocatalysis, photocatalysis and uneven catalysis also are incorporated; themes like zeolites, metals and olefin catalysis are actually mentioned in additional element. The ebook aids virtually orientated readers in turning into conversant in the procedures of catalyst improvement and trying out and for this reason bargains with facets of try making plans, optimization and reactor modeling and simulation with the easy-to-learn workstation software POLYMATH. good over a hundred workouts aid to check and consolidate the won knowledge.Content:
Chapter 1 advent (pages 1–14):
Chapter 2 Homogeneous Catalysis with Transition steel Catalysts (pages 15–58):
Chapter three Homogeneously Catalyzed commercial methods (pages 59–82):
Chapter four Biocatalysis (pages 83–98):
Chapter five Heterogeneous Catalysis: basics (pages 99–222):
Chapter 6 Catalyst Shapes and construction of Heterogeneous Catalysts (pages 223–238):
Chapter 7 Shape?Selective Catalysis: Zeolites (pages 239–259):
Chapter eight Heterogeneously Catalyzed procedures in (pages 261–293):
Chapter nine Electrocatalysis (pages 295–316):
Chapter 10 Environmental Catalysis and eco-friendly Chemistry (pages 317–329):
Chapter eleven Photocatalysis (pages 331–338):
Chapter 12 Phase?Transfer Catalysis (pages 339–345):
Chapter thirteen making plans, improvement, and checking out of Catalysts (pages 347–402):
Chapter 14 Catalysis Reactors (pages 403–424):
Chapter 15 financial significance of Catalysts (pages 425–428):
Chapter sixteen destiny improvement of Catalysis (pages 429–438):
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Extra info for Industrial Catalysis: A Practical Approach, Second Edition
O n+ C C n+ M + ROOH [M ROOH] C C + ROH + Mn+ (2-86) If the metal complex contains M=O groups (e. , oxo complexes of molybdenum or vanadium), oxygen transfer from the metal hydroperoxide complex to the alkene proceeds via a cyclic transition state (Eq. 2-87). 2 Catalyst Concepts in Homogeneous Catalysis As expected the catalytic effectivity increases with increasing Lewis acidity of the complex: MoO34WO3 ; electron-withdrawing ligands also increase the activity: [MoO2(acac)2]4[MoO2(diol)2]. The oxirane process for the epoxidation of propene is of industrial importance.
C2H4 + H2O (2-19) + + Ag(H2O)n + C2H4 Another example of Lewis acid behavior is shown in Equation 2-20, in which an iridium complex takes up a CO ligand to form a dicarbonyl complex. trans-[IrCl(CO)(PPh3)2] + CO s [IrCl(CO)2(PPh3)2] (2-20) In the reverse of dissociation, 16-electron species can add a ligand to give 18-electron complexes : [(acac)Rh(C2H4)2] + C2H4 ] [(acac)Rh(C2H4)3] 16e 18e (2-21) The Brønsted theory states that the acid/base character of a compound depends on its reaction partner and is therefore not an absolute.
2-9). 2- Cl Cl + C2H4 Pt Cl3Sn Cl [Pt(SnCl3)Cl2(C2H4)]- + Cl - (2-9) 7 The trichlorotin(II) ion SnCl7 3 can replace the ligands Cl , CO, and PF3 in nucleophilic ligand-exchange reactions (e. , Eq. 2-10). PtCl42 - + 2 SnCl3- [PtCl2(SnCl3)2] 2- 3 SnCl3- [Pt(SnCl3)5] 3 - (2-10) Ligand-substitution reactions, particularly those involving readily accessible squareplanar PdII or PtII complexes are often used as model reactions for ranking ligands in order of their nucleophilicity (Eq. 2-11). [PtX4]2 − + Y − [PtX3Y]2 − + X− (2-11) The reactions, which proceed by an SN2 mechanism, give the following series  for the nucleophilicity of the incoming ligand Y: F–FH2OFOH– < Cl– < Br–FNH3FC2H4 < py < NO–2 < N–3 < I –FSCN–FR3P The PtII complex of Equation 2-11 has a soft, electrophilic center.
Industrial Catalysis: A Practical Approach, Second Edition by Prof. Dr. Jens Hagen(auth.)