By Michael J. Baker
How a lot can innovation give a contribution to the standard of lifestyles? How can innovation be used to increase and marketplace advertisement items? those are significant questions thought of through a world symposium of lively researchers from the us and Europe within the fields of commercial innovation which was once held on the college of Strathclyde, Glasgow. The scope of the papers is large and embraces the total strategy of innovation, from invention via improvement to commercialisation and diffusion. a few papers disguise wide common concerns equivalent to the social and fiscal results of innovation and executive regulations in the direction of innovation and examine and improvement. Others offer hugely particular and pragmatic recommendation upon the administration of innovation and the improvement of selling innovations to advertise the quickly recognition of recent items and procedures. regardless of the range of the contributions, a few transparent issues emerge. those contain the significance, for profitable innovation, of basically settling on person wishes and the necessity for overall immersion within the aspect of an or industry to be able to comprehend the diffusion of an innovation. briefly, there's something during this ebook for someone who's involved in the impression and impression of technological innovation on our future.
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Additional info for Industrial Innovation: Technology, Policy, Diffusion
Many examples can be found nowadays, and just a few will suffice from two areas: transport and food. As a result of a relatively simple administrative measure, industry supplied many thousands of Belisha beacons; an entirely new service industry- that of driving schools- sprang up when driving tests were made compulsory; a new activity was added to the operations of garages and motor mechanics following the introduction of the testing of threeyear-old vehicles. In another area, the gradually stiffening food standards and the more recent measures concerning the labelling and date-marking of processed food have presented new tasks to many branches of the food industry.
Just a few examples: mechanisation and the increased or novel use of often new-type chemicals for the control of weeds, pests and plant diseases have reduced the labour requirements for sugar beet from 445 hours per hectare in 1950 to 81 hours in 1976. For the same reasons, labour requirements for the potato crop have been reduced from 482 man-hours to 137 and, thanks to the increase in yield, the national demand for potatoes (except for the usual importation of some early potatoes) has been met from an area reduced by almost 40 per cent in the last 15 years.
Commentary John Langrish Ray's paper provides a fascinating and wide-ranging account of the complexities of the innovation process, in terms of effects as well as causes. This paper and Bela Gold's paper should both act as a warning to those who like to discuss the processes of technological change in terms of four boxes with interconnecting arrows. It must be recognised, however, that writing about the complexities of innovation can produce feelings of impatience amongst practitioners, whether lecturers in marketing strategy or R & D managers.
Industrial Innovation: Technology, Policy, Diffusion by Michael J. Baker