By Lauren M. MacLean
This ebook demanding situations prior assumptions approximately associations, social capital, and the character of the African country through investigating the background of political and fiscal switch in villages on each side of the Ghana-Cote d'Ivoire border. ahead of ecu colonial rule, those Akan villages had very comparable political and cultural associations. by way of the overdue Nineties, even if, Lauren M. MacLean came across confusing modifications within the casual associations of reciprocity and indigenous notions of citizenship. Drawing on huge village-based fieldwork and archival examine, MacLean argues that divergent histories of country formation not just form how villagers support one another but additionally impression how neighborhood teams and groups outline citizenship after which decide to have interaction with the nation on a daily foundation. She examines the historic building of the country position in mediating possibility on the neighborhood point throughout 3 coverage components: political management, social carrier supply, and agriculture, highlighting the significance of the colonial and post-colonial country in reworking casual associations.
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Extra info for Informal Institutions and Citizenship in Rural Africa: Risk and Reciprocity in Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire
In addition to this shared culture, the cases selected share many other similarities on the international, national, regional, and village levels. First, both countries share similar positions in the international political economy. Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire both served as coastal trading posts for various European powers as early as the sixteenth century; experienced over a 97 See Dunning (2008) on the strengths and limitations of such natural experiments. Introduction 33 t a b l e 1 . 2 . 7 GDP per capita based on PPP (1998) Gini coefficients, 1991–1996 Area under permanent crop production in thousands of hectares (1980) Rural population as percentage of total (1998) Life expectancy at birth (years in 1980) Life expectancy at birth (years in 2006) Primary school enrollment (1980) Literacy rate (2000) Age 0–14 as percentage of total population Age 65+ as percentage of population Source: World Bank (2001a, 2007); and UNESCO (2007).
As such, they are also formal institutions that are enforced by the local chieftancy. Finally, a village resident might be able to contact the village chief through his favored brother. There is also a commonly shared understanding in the village that a gift of gin would be brought to the brother to open the dialogue. The rules for how to approach the chief through this brother are also unwritten, but are considerably less transparent and more fluid. For example, these informal rules may change if the brother lost favor with this chief or with the installation of a new chief.
See also Berry (1993). Montiel, Agenor, and Haque (1993) examine the pooling of savings through credit societies where capital markets are absent or very weak. Popkin (1979) shows how individuals turn to their churches or the opposition Communist party when the Vietnamese state fails to provide public works and secure property rights. For a review of the literature on risk management and coping strategies in rural developing countries, see Dercon (2002); Anderson (2001); and Morduch (1999). See also Platteau (1997) for a critical analysis of the normative basis and outcomes for informal risk-sharing arrangements.
Informal Institutions and Citizenship in Rural Africa: Risk and Reciprocity in Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire by Lauren M. MacLean