By R. M. Marston
A handbook of recent instrumentation and try apparatus circuits, this e-book offers the reader with 500 sensible circuits
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Additional resources for Instrumentation and Test Gear Circuits Manual
Thus, if the load is shifted a 20dB step down the line, from the output of section '2' to that of section ' 3 ' , the output of section '2' (and the input of section '3') rises by 6dB but the attenuation of section ' 3 ' increases by 6dB (to -26dB), to give an overall step change of precisely — 20dB. 021dB, occurs. Consequently, this type of switched attenuator is widely used in the output of audio and RF generators. 28 shows a practical version of a four-step 600Ω ladder attenuator suitable for audio generator use.
Divide by 100 for 10k total). c. or low frequencies or when made up of lowvalue resistors. Stray capacitances invariably shunt all resistors and make their impedance decrease as frequency increases, and in the case of the 'L' attenuator this may affect its attenuation ratios. This effect is particularly acute when high-value resistors are used; a mere 2pF of stray capacitance represents a reactance of about 800k at 100kHz and can thus have a significant affect on any resistor value greater than 10k or so.
12. c. millivoltmeter. 13. Such a circuit is known as a ladder attenuator. 13 ladder attenuator consists of three cascaded 20dB attenuator stages, each with a maximum resistance value of 820R and with a useful uncompensated bandwidth extending to hundreds of kHz. 1) values of 820R and 91R, and that these shunt the lower 'R2 101R leg of the middle (lOmV) attenuator and reduce its effective value to 91Ω. Similarly, the middle attenuator shunts the lower leg of the first (lOOmV) attenuator and reduces its effective value to 91R.
Instrumentation and Test Gear Circuits Manual by R. M. Marston