By Hava Lazarus-Yafeh
Exploring the vigorous polemics between Jews, Christians and Muslims throughout the heart a long time, this research analyzes Muslim severe attitudes towards the Bible, a few of which percentage universal good points with either pre-Islamic and early glossy eu Bible feedback. not like Jews and Christians, Muslims didn't settle for the textual content of the Bible as divine observe, believing that it were tampered with or falsified. This trust, the writer continues, ended in a severe method of the Bible, which scrutinized its textual content in addition to its methods of transmission. In tracing the connections among pagan, Islamic and smooth Bible feedback, the textual content demonstrates the significance of Muslim mediation among the traditional global and Europe in a hitherto unknown box.
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181-202. Cf. also Al-Dj*iz, Al-Radd hlri-1-Nasara, in Three Essays of al-jcihiz, ed. J. Finkel (Cairo 1926), pp. ; and cf. below, Chapter Three. 24 - Chapter Two Wisdom (Ijikma), and the scrolls of Abraham, Elijah, Luqman, and others. l3 For example, a well-known Hadith saying, transmitted by 'AbdallBh b. 'Amr b. al-'AS, states that the description of Muhammad in Sara 48:8 ("Lo! l4 Legendary versions of the conversion in the year 638 of the Jewish Rabbi Ka'b al-Ahbiir15 to Islam state that he disclosed that the "true Torah" contained at least ten explicit verses from the Qur'an.
Lg Although earlier M u s h authors also mentioned this in a very general manner, only here, in the fourteenth century, do we have an explicit acknowledgment by a Muslim author of the fact that Islamic literature used the term "Torah" in a very wide sense, as denoting Jewish and other material, different from the Biblical text itselfz0 In fact, Muslim authors did not hesitate to term the Qur'an "a new Torah" (Tawrdt H ~ d i t h a )and , ~ ~even to suppose that the Torah was revealed to Moses at the holy sites near Mecca.
Brinner and S. Ricks (Atlanta 1986) pp. 109-21, and especially the new approach to this book by S. Stroumsa, "From Muslim Heresy to Jewish-Muslim Polemics: Ibn al-Rawandi's Kitab Al-Ddmigh,"JAOS 107 (1987): 767-72. 28 Chapter Two cases in which the given Biblical text must necessarily have been falsified and could never be ascribed to a divinely inspired revelation. Interestingly, most of the many details he provides are already mentioned in various preIslamic polemical sources, such as in early Rabbinic texts or by Christian, Judaeo-Christian, anti-Christian, and Gnostic authors.
Intertwined Worlds by Hava Lazarus-Yafeh