By Mark Grayson
Because the mobile international and the net converge, cellular networks are transitioning from circuit to packet and the web Protocol (IP) is now well-known because the primary construction block for all next-generation communique networks. The all-IP imaginative and prescient offers the pliability to bring budget friendly providers and functions that meet the evolving wishes of cellular clients. RF engineers, cellular community designers, and process architects may be anticipated to fully grasp IP basics and the way their function in supplying the end-to-end approach is essential for providing the all-IP imaginative and prescient that makes the net available each time, wherever. IP layout for cellular Networks discusses right IP layout idea to successfully plan and enforce your next-generation cellular community in order that IP integrates all elements of the community. The ebook outlines, from either a criteria and a layout concept viewpoint, either the present and aim kingdom of cellular networks, and the expertise enablers that would help the migration. This IP transition starts with function-specific migrations of particular community domain names and ends with an end-to-end IP community for radio, shipping, and repair supply. The e-book introduces many thoughts to offer you publicity to the major know-how tendencies and determination issues affecting today’s cellular operators. The ebook is split into 3 components: half I presents an summary of ways IP is being built-in into cellular platforms, together with radio structures and mobile networks. half II presents an summary of IP, the applied sciences used for shipping and connectivity of today’s mobile networks, and the way the cellular center is evolving to surround IP applied sciences. half III offers an summary of the end-to-end companies community in accordance with IP, together with context wisdom and prone. offers an summary of what cellular networks appear like today—including protocols used, delivery applied sciences, and the way IP is getting used for particular capabilities in cellular networks presents an all-inclusive reference handbook for IP layout thought as concerning the wider software of IP for cellular networks Imparts a view of upcoming developments in mobility criteria to raised organize a community evolution plan for IP-based cellular networks This booklet is a part of the Networking expertise sequence from Cisco Press®, which deals networking execs beneficial info for developing effective networks, realizing new applied sciences, and development winning careers. ciscopress.com $60.00 united states / $72.00 CAN
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07, or over seven times that at the nominal operating point. 15 IP Design for Mobile Networks 100 10–1 10–2 Bit Error Rate 16 10–3 10–4 10–5 10–6 QPSK (Non-Differential Data Encoding) 16 QAM 64 QAM 256 QAM 0 5 15 10 20 25 Eb/N0 (dB) Figure 1-10 BER Performance in AWGN of Different Modulation Schemes Now, if instead the modulation is decreased from 256 QAM to 64 QAM while keeping the symbol energy constant, since Eb/No is a normalized measure of the energy per symbol to noise spectral density ratio, there will a corresponding increase in Eb by a factor of: Log2 M where M is the number of alternative modulation symbols.
The chapter describes how cellular access systems have traditionally decomposed functionality between radio base station elements and base station controller equipment, with legacy Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM) or Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)-defined interfaces between the two. The chapter then describes how IP is fundamentally impacting these access systems in two distinct ways, as follows: ■ IP in the transport network: Access System interfaces are increasingly being defined using IP protocols and thus the significance of IP in the transport network is increasing.
The contribution from all the correlator receivers are then combined (using a Rake receiver) in order to leverage the energy dispersed over different multipath components. 29 30 IP Design for Mobile Networks ■ Using systems of parallel tone modems: In OFDMA systems, the information to be transmitted is converted into a large number (N) of parallel streams. Each stream is used to modulate a narrow band subcarrier, with the overall transmission being comprised of N finely spaced subcarriers. The effective symbol rate of each of the subcarriers is decreased by a factor of N, resulting in the symbol duration being increased by a factor of N.
IP Design for Mobile Networks by Mark Grayson