By Robert Conquest
Essentially, the frightfulness of Kolyma used to be due to not geographical or climatic purposes, yet to wakeful judgements taken in Moscow. for many years prior to 1937, in truth, it used to be good administered and the dying price used to be low. The weather, even though highly chilly, is a remarkably fit one for males who're competently fed, clothed and sheltered. during this prior section, the most target of the management was once to provide gold successfully. within the later interval ( as one commandant positioned it particularly openly), although the gold remained vital, the valuable target was once to kill off the prisoners. within the earliest interval of the labour camp method, the Solovki camps at the islands of the White Sea have been the logo of the entire procedure, the worst killers. those have been undefined, within the mid-thirties, by way of the camps of the Baltic-White Sea Canal. Kolyma took their position simply whilst the process was once achieving its greatest growth, and remained important to it for the following fifteen years, as (in Solzhenitsyn's phrases) "the pole of chilly and cruelty" of the labour camp process.
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Extra info for Kolyma: the arctic death camps
Neto, mine; niyo, myself, I; mato, yours; piyo, he, she it (emphatic). Since in W this -o does not follow the genitive -n/ -un, it is not clear if it should be reconstructed. Note that SP appears to show two different possessives: SP-M che-lo’-no hek-ke, rabbit-skin blanket, with the general P possessive suffix -no, but also SP-A tiuncuhui, and SP-G tiunsupui, eyelash. If the -un in the last two forms is the possessive, it would be cognate with the W possessive -un, in which case *-un rather than *-no should be reconstructed.
No complete words are reconstructible. This suffix is related to *qa, referential. 6 *-khen, may, might, lest, related to deictic *khe. One complete word is reconstructible: *t’ukukh en, you might drown, based on W t’ukuken, you might drown, lest you drown; PR ’o·nan, t’u u in mi, watch out! you might drown. 7 *-le is an intentional future. ” This suffix is related to *lel-, “make,” which points to a future that is “made” by an individual, which makes it inevitable provided the individual intends it.
Since most roots are of the shape CVC, the majority of reduplicated forms are of the shape CVC-CVC. Examples of reduplication are: *k’ok’o, flea; *halhal, repetitive or prolonged thinking; *tiltil, ringing sound; * ’ereC ’ereC, ’iriC ’iriC ? ; ’uru(C) ’uruC, cricket; *sasasapa, oriole. The only morphophonemic rule that applies to reduplication is that when the root has a long vowel, its copy has the corresponding short vowel. , *pa·tpat, flat tule, cattail; *§i·r§ir, sparrowhawk. ), the last syllable rather than the root is reduplicated, most likely for sound-symbolic purposes.
Kolyma: the arctic death camps by Robert Conquest