By Raffaele Badolato, Silvano Sozzani
Since the invention of chemokines and of chemokine receptors it has develop into obvious that expression of chemokines on the web site of irritation may possibly keep watch over the composition of mobile infiltrate, thereby directing the kind of immune reaction. lately, the molecular characterization of inherited issues of immune method, (e.g., Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, WHIM syndrome, leukocyte adhesion deficiency), that are characterised by way of cytoskeleton/adhesion defects or through altered reaction of chemokine receptors has contributed to clarifying the main avid gamers of immune reaction in common body structure and in affliction. This publication, which bargains with the outline of the position of chemokines in immune reaction and underlines strength objectives of therapeutical intervention, deals a sequence of contributions of the main tough elements of lymphocyte migration in homeostasis and in disease.
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Selectins control initial tethering and rolling of free-flowing white blood cells on carbohydrate moieties present on endothelia . Tethering or capture consists of the initial transient adhesion contacts of leukocytes with the endothelium or an adhered leukocyte or platelet. The slow motion of rolling leukocytes then facilitates sensing of chemoattractants exposed on the endothelial surfaces. Subsequently, chemoattractants rapidly deliver intracellular signals via seven transmembrane domain G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) which, in turn, promote firm leukocyte adherence and transendothelial migration by up-regulation of integrin’s adhesiveness (avidity) to a family of immunoglobulin-like endothelial ligands .
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Am J Pathol 156: 1951–1959 150 Traynor TR, Kuziel WA, Toews GB, Huffnagle GB (2000) CCR2 expression determines T1 versus T2 polarization during pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection. J Immunol 164: 2021–2027 36 Biology of chemokines 151 Peters W, Dupuis M, Charo IF (2000) A mechanism for the impaired IFN-gamma production in C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) knockout mice: role of CCR2 in linking the innate and adaptive immune responses. J Immunol 165: 7072–7077 152 Warmington KS, Boring L, Ruth JH, Sonstein J, Hogaboam CM, Curtis JL, Kunkel SL, Charo IR, Chensue SW (1999) Effect of C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) knockout on type-2 (schistosomal antigen-elicited) pulmonary granuloma formation: analysis of cellular recruitment and cytokine responses.
Lymphocyte Trafficking in Health and Disease by Raffaele Badolato, Silvano Sozzani