By Susan J. Pharr, Ellis S. Krauss
Japan is among the such a lot media-saturated societies on this planet. The circulations of its "big 5" nationwide newspapers dwarf these of any significant American newspaper. NHK, its public carrier broadcasting company, is moment purely to the BBC in dimension. And it has a whole diversity of industrial tv stations, high-brow and low-brow magazines (from commonly learn highbrow journals to the ever present manga, or grownup comedian books), and a wide antimainstream media and mini-media. eastern elites, surveys express, price the mass media because the so much influential workforce in jap society. yet what function do they play in political lifestyles? Whose pursuits do the media serve? As Japan's critics frequently carry, are they commonly servants of the nation? Or are they watchdogs on behalf of the general public, because the media themselves declare and as instructed by way of their position in uncovering past due eighties and early nineties political scandals and in triggering political swap in the summertime of 1993? And what results do the media have at the political opinions and behaviour of standard jap humans? those questions, critical for analyzing the media's position in any business society, are the focal point of this selection of essays through best political scientists, sociologists, social psychologists, and reporters. Japan's detailed kisha (press) membership approach, its robust media enterprise organisations, the makes use of of the media via Japan's wily bureaucrats, and the function of the media in every little thing from political scandals to shaping public opinion, are among the topics of this insightful and provocative booklet.
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60 Similar charges abound among leaders of social protest movements in Japan, as David Groth chronicles in this volume. Yet to observe this phenomenon is not to share the profound pessimism of many critics of the media who are advocates of political change and see the mass media defeating such ends. A view that the media serve the interests of the state leads one to overlook, or at least to underplay, the complex duality of the media’s role, in which they serve state and society simultaneously but never in a predictable fashion.
S. data, no anchors expressed personal opinions. 16. Curtis, Japanese Way of Politics, p. 167. 17. New York Times, 18 July 1993, p. 8. 18. See this volume, chapter 12, for more discussion of this view. 19. See Richard H. : Princeton University Press, 1983), pp. , Harvard University, May 1985. English-language sources on the prewar media include Shûichi Katò, “The Mass Media,” in Political Modernization in Japan and Turkey, ed. Robert E. Ward and Dankwart A. : Princeton University Press, 1964), pp.
In their role as trickster, the media create a sense of bondedness within the community, as members of society join together to create a collective social reality. Perhaps the high degree of media saturation in Japan—which by many measures exceeds the level in numerous other countries, including the United States—is a reflection of the importance of this bonding effect in a homogeneous society. Conversely, the value of bonding may be underplayed by Western political scientists and media specialists who place a higher value on the political efficacy of individuals and their active personal involvement in politics.
Media and Politics in Japan by Susan J. Pharr, Ellis S. Krauss