By Dieter Rickenmann
An vital a part of the chance administration of typical dangers in mountain areas issues the threat overview and the making plans of safety measures in steep headwater catchments, i.e. torrent keep an eye on and slope stabilization. Torrent approaches in steep channels have their rightful position one of the a number of alpine average risks and the corresponding regulate measures have an extended culture within the eu alpine international locations. within the making plans and execution of such measures, specialist event has been of paramount value. This event used to be established totally on observations made in the course of and after damaging occasions, in addition to on normal box visits within the catchments of a steep headwater movement. Quantitative measurements, e.g. of the release and of the eroded and deposited stable fabrics, were more and more performed simply within the final a long time. This set the foundation to strengthen and enhance quantitative how you can are expecting move hydraulics, bedload shipping and particles flows in torrent catchments.
This e-book offers an outline of the way to quantify channel tactics in steep catchments. the knowledge and the quantitative description of channel strategies presents a vital foundation for the making plans of safeguard measures.
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Additional info for Methods for the quantitative assessment of channel processes in torrents (steep streams)
G. taking account of additional energy losses), which for mountain rivers are up to almost an order of magnitude lower (Jäggi 1992), and for torrents are up to several orders of magnitude lower (Rickenmann 1997a, 2001a) than the transport capacity. The approaches to calculate the bedload transport capacity are based on flume experiments (often with a plane bed without armor layer) with an adequate sediment input from upstream, and, mostly, with relative flow depths greater than about 7 (Meyer-Peter & Müller 1949; Smart & Jäggi 1983; Rickenmann 1990).
Buffington 1997; Fig. 2). In torrent catchments, peak water runoff and also the formation of debris flows is often triggered by convective rainstorms with high precipitation intensities and short durations. These storms are associated with a rapid increase in discharge, and flood events typically lasting less than a few hours. indb 22 2/23/2016 7:39:08 AM Fluvial bedload transport 23 duration rainfall events may be more important in mountain rivers, resulting in a more gradual increase in runoff conditions.
21 to Eq. 4 = 3. 24) Together with Eq. 16, Vo(q) is then obtained. For the calculation of the total resistance ftot or Vtot Eq. 14 together with Eq. 15 and Eq. 16 is used, which then gives Vtot(q). 25) The ratio (fo/ftot) represents a reduction factor, which is a measure of that part of the total flow energy (or total bed shear stress) available for bedload transport. 4). 1 CHARACTERIZATION OF TORRENTS AND MOUNTAIN RIVERS In mountain rivers and torrents, hydrologic and hydraulic processes are characterized by extreme variability, both in the spatial and the temporal domains.
Methods for the quantitative assessment of channel processes in torrents (steep streams) by Dieter Rickenmann