By John P McNamara, James France
This e-book describes present study in modeling nutrient use in cattle, from mobile to environment point. The chapters are constructed from papers awarded at a satellite tv for pc assembly of the ninth foreign Symposium on Ruminant body structure, held in South Africa in October 1999.
* very good papers from a best checklist of contributors
* Editors of significant reputation
* Covers the present subject matters of curiosity
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Additional resources for Modelling nutrient utilization in farm animals
Using book values for the DG° enables determination of the equilibrium constant (Keq) as follows: Keq = eϪDG/RT (8) Ruminal pH One of the most obvious examples of thermodynamic control of ruminal metabolism is the control of pH by the bicarbonate ion (HCO3Ϫ). The bicarbonate system includes two major ionic forms: HCO3Ϫ and CO32Ϫ. The HCO3Ϫ ion is of primary importance to buffering because it may be protonated to H2CO3. The equilibrium constant for weak acid dissociation can be derived from setting DG for the reaction to 0 and solving for the concentration of products over reactants.
The primary objective of the model currently being developed is to integrate LCFA metabolism with microbial metabolism of other substrates in the rumen, and to predict the effect of amount and composition of dietary fat upon the profile of nutrients available for absorption. In the modified model, there are three rumen lipid pools: unhydrolysed lipid (Li), saturated free LCFA (Fs) and unsaturated free LCFA (Fu). Inputs to these pools are from the feed and outputs are flows to the duodenum. The rate of biohydrogenation is dependent on the amount of fibre and of unsaturated LCFA in the rumen.
In: Physical Chemistry with Applications to Biological Systems, 2nd edn. Macmillan, New York, pp. 129–163. CRC (1991) In: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st edn. CRC Press, Cleveland, pp. 5/28–5/55. E. and France, J. (1992) Simulation of nutrient digestion, absorption and outflow in the rumen: model description. Journal of Nutrition 122, 2239Ϫ2256. T. and Gerrard, W. (1985) In: Solubility of Gases in Liquids: A Critical Evaluation of Gas/Liquid Systems in Theory and Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, pp.
Modelling nutrient utilization in farm animals by John P McNamara, James France