By R. Stephen Humphreys
During this available learn, Stephen Humphreys introduces the main elusive of the early caliphs, Mu'awiya ibn abi Sufyan (602-680). all through historical past, a few have accused him of being the 1st caliph to diverge from Muhammed's version of perfect Muslim management while others credits him with uniting an empire in disarray and reworking the Caliphate right into a viable kind of executive. In mild of this, Humphreys severely analyses his resources, and seeks to get as shut as attainable to a ancient account of the nice guy.
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For whatever they do not find in the Book of God they will resort to the just precedent which unites and does not divide. [Tabari, XVII, 85-86] ~ru ~~il,. ef:i II' The agreement is difficult to interpret, because we do not know exactly what several key terms meant to those who wrote it. We do not know. The Qur' an says little about government and rulership and never describes a situation like this one. Perhaps they were to look for moral commandments which would clarify whether or not 'Uthman deserved to die for his actions as caliph.
He was the Prophet's first cousin, his son-in-law by his marriage to the Prophet's daughter Fatima (who died in 633, just six months after her father) and the father (by Fatima) of Muhammad's only living male descendants, Hasan and Husayn. 'Ali accepted Islam as a youth and was. possibly the first male convert. His unwavering personal loyalty to Muhammad, his devotion to the cause of Islam and his' courage in its defense were not in doubt. His supporters believed that' Ali exemplified the personal piety and devotion to justice that were the hallmarks of the dispensation brought by Muhammad.
It was abundantly clear that the coast was terribly vulnerable, as long as the Byzantine navy enjoyed a monopoly of the sea lanes. However, there is every reason to think he knew that, in addition to a navy's defensive role, a strong fleet could open up new lines of attack against the Byzantines. We might expect to find some support in the early Muslim chronicles for these surmises butTabari, our main source for the origins of Mu'awiya's navy, is content with what appears to be a bit of pious folklore: .
Mu'awiya ibn abi Sufyan: From Arabia to Empire (Makers of the Muslim World) by R. Stephen Humphreys