By Elizabeth S. Chilton, Mary Lynne Rainey
An indispensible, up to date assessment of the archaeology of the local peoples and earliest settlers of japanese Massachusetts.
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Additional info for Nantucket and Other Native Places: The Legacy of Elizabeth Alden Little
Those who retained sachem status or direct sachem lineage in the Indian community through this period were fortunate to also retain the power to negotiate land and shares in sheep and horse commons and, for a limited time, proﬁt (Byers 1987; Little 1996). A small proportion became successful tradesmen and whalers who had managed to prosper despite oppressive English laws, rapidly diminishing traditional homelands, and a growing movement on the part of the English toward ethnic marginalization (Byers 1987; Little 1990, 1992, 1996).
During this period, it is apparent that there was a rapid transformation of the majority of Native American residents from being autonomous and self-sufﬁcient to being indentured and relatively poor by English standards. Byers (1987, 99) concluded that about three fourths of the Native Americans hired for whaling crews between 1725 and 1733 were servants whose earnings were given to their masters upon the conclusion of a voyage. The process of indentured servitude created a succession of Native American complaints that triggered a 1718 bill in the Massachusetts General Court designed to ensure that Native Americans only entered labor agreements by choice (Byers 1987, 97–98).
Ephemeral buildings such as sheds or workshops may not have been placed on foundations of stone or brick. However, there was also a noticeable absence of other evidence, such as concentrations of nails, window glass, rotted wood, or other structural debris or items that might have been stored in these outbuildings. Photographs of the house and lot showed that by the mid-to-late nineteenth century, outbuildings were located against the rear fence line, and it is possible that they were always on that part of the property.
Nantucket and Other Native Places: The Legacy of Elizabeth Alden Little by Elizabeth S. Chilton, Mary Lynne Rainey