By Peter R. Huttenlocher
Neural plasticity--the brain's skill to alter based on general developmental procedures, adventure, and injury--is a severely very important phenomenon for either neuroscience and psychology. expanding facts in regards to the quantity of plasticity--long earlier the supposedly severe first 3 years--has lately emerged. Neural Plasticity bargains the 1st succinct and lucid integration of this study and its implications. declaring the unfavourable and the confident results of plasticity, Peter Huttenlocher describes plasticity in childrens and adults (in general getting older and in line with trauma), in sensory platforms, the motor cortex, better cortical services, and language improvement, continuing method via procedure, and paying specific recognition to the cerebral cortex. one of many book's strengths is its diversity of references, not just to experiences on human matters yet to the experimental research of animal types to boot. This publication might be a special contribution to investigate and to the literature on medical neuroscience.
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Additional resources for Neural Plasticity: The Effects of Environment on the Development of the Cerebral Cortex
In a Harvey Lecture, L. B. Flexner (1951–52) defined a critical period in the development of the brain of the guinea pig fetus, during which there is sudden anatomic, biochemical, and functional maturation of the brain. Dobbing (1981) stressed the sensitivity of rapidly developing neural structures to damage by negative environmental factors, including metabolic abnormalities and cerebral hypoxia (“vulnerable periods”). The third trimester of pregnancy and early infancy appears to be such a vulnerable period for the human, probably because of the rapid growth of the neuropil, including axons, dendrites, and synapses, that occurs during this period.
The Formation and Migration of Cortical Neurons in the Adult Brain There are several areas in the primate brain where formation of neurons continues after birth. , 1999). The study by Eriksson et al. (1998), carried out in postmortem human brains, yielded results similar to those found in studies of subhuman primates. Recently, evidence has been presented that formation of new neurons also occurs in adult neocortex. Neuronal birth in the subependymal zone, migration through the white matter, and incorporation into the neocortex have been described in primates during adult life.
The reasons for this are not well understood. One possibility is that late development of dendrites, but normal or near-normal growth of axons, will lead to a mismatching of synaptic connections because the nor34 . N E U R O A N A T O M I C A L S U B S T R A T E S mally arriving axons are unable to find their normal targets for innervation. Evidence of such mismatching has been reported in a study on the effects of experimental hypothyroidism on synaptic connections in the hippocampus of rats (Rami, Patel, and Rabie, 1986a, 1986b).
Neural Plasticity: The Effects of Environment on the Development of the Cerebral Cortex by Peter R. Huttenlocher