Read e-book online Neuro- und Sinnesphysiologie PDF

By V. Braitenberg, A. Schüz (auth.), Professor Dr. Robert F. Schmidt (eds.)

ISBN-10: 3540562389

ISBN-13: 9783540562382

ISBN-10: 3662089416

ISBN-13: 9783662089415

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2-4). Mit demselben Transportsystem laufen aber auch größere Organellen wie Mitochondrien. Der "Massentransport" zur Peripherie ist notwendig, weil die Struktur- und Funktionselemente der Zelle begrenzte Lebensdauern von Stunden bis Wochen haben und weil viele dieser Elemente nur im Kernbereich synthetisiert werden können. Passive Diffussion eines größeren Eiweißes über Entfernungen bis zu 1 m würde Jahre dauern. Mit etwas geringerer Geschwindigkeit als der orthograde axonale Transport findet auch ein retrograder Transport von großen Vesikeln statt (Abb.

L (Inositoltriphosphat). Das extrazelluläre Signal wird wie beim cAMP-System über ein G-Protein vermittelt, das Pospholipase C (PLC) aktiviert. Diese spaltet Phosphaditylinosindiphosphat (PIP2 ) der Plasmamembran in IP3 und Diacylglycerin (DG), wobei IP3 ins Zytoplasma diffundiert. Dort setzt es Ca 2+ aus dem endoplasmatischen Retikulum frei, und die Erhöhung von [Ca 2+)i aktiviert eine Proteinkinase, die ein Funktionsprotein phosphoryliert und damit aktiviert. Das Spaltprodukt DG bleibt in der Membran und aktiviert eine C-Kinase (Kofaktor Phosphatidyl-Serin, PS) .

Es gibt viele Isoformen der C-Kinase mit verschiedener Proteinspezifität, was das Wirkungsspektrum der Steuerung durch DG erweitert. Die C-Kinase kann durch Phorbolester direkt aktiviert werden. Diese Substanzen sind u. a. hochpotente Kanzerogene, was wiederum die Wichtigkeit der Steuerung über die C-Kinase unterstreicht. Arachidonsäure. Mit einem ähnlichen Mechanismus wie dem in Abb. 2-5 b gezeigten kann statt PLC auch eine Phospholipase A 2 aktiviert werden, die aus Phophoinositol der Membran Arachidonsäure abspaltet.

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Neuro- und Sinnesphysiologie by V. Braitenberg, A. Schüz (auth.), Professor Dr. Robert F. Schmidt (eds.)

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