By Johan Fritzell, Bjorn Hvinden, Mikko Kautto, Jon Kvist, Hannu Uusitalo
This crucial sequel to Nordic Social Policy (Routledge 1999) compares welfare nation improvement during the last 20 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden with that of Germany, the Netherlands, the uk and different Western ecu international locations. themes coated contain: * source of revenue distribution, healthiness inequalities and gender equality * gender rules, healthiness and social care providers and coverage response to kinfolk adjustments * social safety and employment rules * financing of welfare states. within the context of globalisation, getting old populations, altering employment styles and emerging inequalities, Nordic Welfare States within the ecu Context deals an empirical research of welfare diversifications and a full of life dialogue of the historic improvement of ecu social coverage. It unearths a better ambiguity relating to version and traits than is often urged. opposite to expectation, there's little facts of the Europeanisation of Nordic welfare states, really the opposite. The related and empirical facts utilized in this research make it a special contribution to realizing present developments in ecu social coverage.
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Discussion in Lewis 1997), we find no evidence that these European countries have been able to substantially improve their economic conditions. Since the focus of attention in this analysis has been solely on change rather than level, it should finally be mentioned that the relative income level for single parents in all four Nordic countries was markedly higher than in the three non-Nordic countries, which confirms the picture on relative poverty rates presented earlier. Above all, in the United Kingdom there was a huge difference between the relative income level of single parents and the overall average.
The focus on the young is also motivated by earlier findings within this project (Fritzell 1999). The most striking change in relative income when comparing average incomes in the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s by different social categories (age, class and gender) referred to the relative deterioration of the younger segments of the populations in all three countries for which data were available (Finland, Norway and Sweden). 15 A recent OECD report also highlighted the younger segments of the population as a new prime vulnerable group in the OECD countries (OECD 1998a).
To enjoy reasonably good health, is certainly a fundamental prerequisite for leading a good life (Allardt 1975; Johansson 1979; Erikson 1992). It may therefore be argued that levels and trends in morbidity and mortality provide essential evidence for evaluating the performance of welfare states. This is also reflected in the frequent use of infant mortality rates and life expectancies in broad international comparisons of welfare. The fact that people’s social positions are linked to their morbidity and mortality risk in a systematic way means that it is not sufficient to study overall levels of ill health only.
Nordic Welfare States in the European Context by Johan Fritzell, Bjorn Hvinden, Mikko Kautto, Jon Kvist, Hannu Uusitalo