By Andrew C. Gould
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Extra info for Origins of Liberal Dominance: State, Church, and Party in Nineteenth-Century Europe
Progressives organized massive public demonstrations in the larger urban areas, notably in Brussels. Doctrinaires controlled government, but progressives seemed ascendant in urban society. 3. Paul Janson, speech of June 12, 1885 at Mons, in Delange-Janson 1962, 346 (my translation). 34 Origins of Liberal Dominance A second irony made the imbalances between doctrinaire and progressive factions debilitating in Belgium: neither liberal faction developed a strong organization in the countryside. Progressive plans for franchise expansion threatened to allow the Catholic party to develop this type of support to the detriment of liberals generally.
A Parisian journal reported the 1846 Congress in these terms: The flagrant battle for the past five years between the Catholic party and the Liberal party has just produced an extremely important event. . It was decided that a liberal congress would meet in Brussels .... The assembly adopted . . a plan for the general confederation of all the liberals of Belgium, and a program that will henceforth serve as the basis for all candidacies and for the parliamentary conduct of elected candidates.
What permitted the subsequent run of liberal predominance? Why did pro-church politicians finally reverse their fortunes and assume leadership in the Belgian regime? The answers to these questions will be explored more fully in the next chapter, but readers may wish to see the main lines of the analysis of Belgium here. The institutions prior to reform were a neoabsolutist monarchy in which a Protestant monarch was largely opposed to the Catholic Church. Liberals Institutions at Onset of Second Liberal Refonn Liberal Policy toward Religious Authority Response of Clergy Provincial Middle-Class and Peasant Reply Party and Regime Outcome Mass Phase Successful Successful Conditional Defeat of Liberals Weak liberal party in a constitutional democracy Co-opted Defeat of Liberals Weak liberal parties in an authoritarian regime Opposition Oppose liberals Strong liberal parties in a constitutional democracy Supremacy of Liberals Attack Catholic Opposition Oppose liberals Preserve Protestant Support Support liberals Attack Catholic Attack Catholic Opposition Oppose liberals Preserve Protestant Toleration Tolerate liberals Attack Catholic Opposition Parliament sovereign Support Preserve Protestant Support Promote Catholic Non-liberal Churches not incorporated Switzerland Parliament sovereign Attack Catholic Opposition Non-liberal Church not incorporated Belgium Monarchs sovereign Failed Attack Protestant Opposition Non-liberal Incorporated Churches Gennany Institutions, Refonn Dynamics, and Outcomes in Four Countries Compared State and Church Institutions at Onset of Liberal Refonn Liberal Policy toward Religious Authority Response of Clergy Fate of Elite Liberal Refonn Elite Phase TABLE 2.
Origins of Liberal Dominance: State, Church, and Party in Nineteenth-Century Europe by Andrew C. Gould