By Mary Stroll
A revolution shook the Christian global within the moment half the 11th century. Many eminent historians aspect to Hildebrand, later Gregory VII (1073-1085), because the best mover of this circulate that aspired to unfastened the Church from secular entanglements, and to come back it to its country of paleochristian purity. I see the reform from the point of view of a lot wider advancements corresponding to the cut up among the Greek and the Latin church buildings and the Norman infiltration of Southern Italy. Contentrating at the popes and the antipopes I delve into the nature and motivations of the real personae, and don't see the move as a soft line of development. I see the result as reversal of energy of what have been a robust empire and a vulnerable papacy.
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He continued to fight against the schismatics, and was not interested in a crusade, believing that the fight should be against the enemies within the church, not without. S. 11 Robinson states that prior to the mid-eighth century the Byzantine emperor entitled his representative in Rome as patricius. Without specifying how the popes gained control of the office, he says that they granted the same title to the Frankish kings in the second half of the eighth century to emphasize the kings’ duty to defend the papacy.
20 By emphasizing the presence of the margrave, Boniface, Benzo shows that the most powerful figure between Rome and Lombardy was in accord with the proceedings. Other sources describe the procedures somewhat differently. 22 But citing Innocent I, Bonizo said that once the emergency was over the practice should cease, and it had not. He noted that Clement II was the first in a series of popes to be conse crated elsewhere. Bonizo complained that after Henry had been crowned, he freed the city from the tyranny of the patricians only to seize that very same tyranny.
The genesis 3 Weinfurter, Canossa, p. 36; Imperial Lives and Letters of the Eleventh Century, ed. Robinson, introduction p. 42 for description of Wipo; Wipo, The Deeds of Conrad II, pp. 52–100. , 83; the story of how Gebhard became bishop of Eichstatt illustrates Henry’s relationship with bishops: The emperor was the absolute authority; but when no one became bishop, he must listen to the will and consensus of the bishops. Only irre proachable bishops were tolerated; Henry later named Gebhard as pope Victor II (1055–1057).
Popes and antipopes : the politics of eleventh century church reform by Mary Stroll