By Ramdane Dris, S. Mohan Jain
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Extra info for Production Practices and Quality Assessment of Food Crops: Volume 2: Plant Mineral Nutrition and Pesticide Management
And is the most promising indicator of exposure for biological monitoring. 1. Metabolites 2-Thiazolidinethione-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA). CS2 is metabolised to TTCA by addition to the cysteinyl-SH group of glutathione and subsequent ring condensation (Bus, 1985). , 1994) is a non negligible source of urinary TTCA. , 1991). ) (ACGIH, 2002), and the WHO has also suggested this indicator for monitoring exposure to DTC (WHO, 1996). Ethylenethiourea (imidazolidin-2-thione, ETU). , 1972; Jordan and Neal, 1979).
1991). In fatal cases, unmodified compounds may be measured in various organs (Duck and Woolias, 1985). 3. Metabolites Benomyl metabolites. The main benomyl metabolites are carbendazim (methyl 2benzimidazole carbamate) (II), and methyl 5-hydroxy-2-benzimidazolecarbamate (III), which have been detected in experimental animals but never in biological fluids of exposed workers or the general population (Liesivuori and Jääskeläinen, 1984). 32 Cristina Aprea 1-Naphtol (1NAP) and carbaryl. 1NAP is the main metabolite of carbaryl in humans, accounting for more than 85% of its metabolites in urine (WHO, 1994).
1983b) showed faster excretion than for 2,4D: 40% of the dose was excreted in urine in the first 24 h and 80% in the first 5 days after a single oral dose. After skin application of MCPA, a slow increase in plasma concentrations was observed with a maximum after 24 h. In urine, slow excretion that continued for more than 5 days was observed, with a peak 24–48 h after application. , 1983b). Urinary 2,4-D and MCPA are very sensitive indicators of exposure of these two compounds. If urine collection continues for 24 h from the end of exposure or if spot urine samples are obtained the morning after exposure, the two compounds can be used as indicators of dose.
Production Practices and Quality Assessment of Food Crops: Volume 2: Plant Mineral Nutrition and Pesticide Management by Ramdane Dris, S. Mohan Jain