By Alice Shepherd
This quantity represents a reconstruction of Proto-Wintun, the mother or father language of a gaggle of California Indian languages. It incorporates a grammatical caricature of Proto-Wintun, cognate units with reconstructions and an index to the reconstructions. The e-book fulfills a necessity for in-depth reconstructions of proto-languages for California Indian language households, either for theoretical reasons and deeper comparability with different proto- or pre-languages.
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Additional info for Proto-Wintun (University of California Publications Linguistics Vol. 137)
Neto, mine; niyo, myself, I; mato, yours; piyo, he, she it (emphatic). Since in W this -o does not follow the genitive -n/ -un, it is not clear if it should be reconstructed. Note that SP appears to show two different possessives: SP-M che-lo’-no hek-ke, rabbit-skin blanket, with the general P possessive suffix -no, but also SP-A tiuncuhui, and SP-G tiunsupui, eyelash. If the -un in the last two forms is the possessive, it would be cognate with the W possessive -un, in which case *-un rather than *-no should be reconstructed.
No complete words are reconstructible. This suffix is related to *qa, referential. 6 *-khen, may, might, lest, related to deictic *khe. One complete word is reconstructible: *t’ukukh en, you might drown, based on W t’ukuken, you might drown, lest you drown; PR ’o·nan, t’u u in mi, watch out! you might drown. 7 *-le is an intentional future. ” This suffix is related to *lel-, “make,” which points to a future that is “made” by an individual, which makes it inevitable provided the individual intends it.
Since most roots are of the shape CVC, the majority of reduplicated forms are of the shape CVC-CVC. Examples of reduplication are: *k’ok’o, flea; *halhal, repetitive or prolonged thinking; *tiltil, ringing sound; * ’ereC ’ereC, ’iriC ’iriC ? ; ’uru(C) ’uruC, cricket; *sasasapa, oriole. The only morphophonemic rule that applies to reduplication is that when the root has a long vowel, its copy has the corresponding short vowel. , *pa·tpat, flat tule, cattail; *§i·r§ir, sparrowhawk. ), the last syllable rather than the root is reduplicated, most likely for sound-symbolic purposes.
Proto-Wintun (University of California Publications Linguistics Vol. 137) by Alice Shepherd